Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS
Michael Jessee Adkins
Manuscript Views: 360 | Manuscript Download: 299
Afghanistan’s public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially increased since the fall of the Taliban Regime. A resurgence of learning is happening throughout the country. Although this resurgence is welcome, it faces unique challenges. This article examines Afghanistan’s history of educational oppression, describes post-Taliban educational trends, examines modern challenges facing public education, and provides recommendations for fostering a new hope for educational attainment among the citizens of Afghanistan.
Keywords: Afghanistan, Education, Rising, Oppression, ISIS
- Azizi, M. (2008). Leaders of higher education in Afghanistan: leadership beliefs, and challenges for the 21st century (Doctoral Dissertation) Retrieved from UMI. (UMI Number: 3336791)
- Babury, M. O., & Hayward, F. M. (2013). A Lifetime of Trauma: Mental Health Challenges for Higher Education in a Conflict Environment in Afghanistan. Education Policy Analysis Archives Epaa, 21, 1-22.
- Beck, J. (2015, September 17). The Islamic State Has Shut Down 57 Afghan Schools. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://news.vice.com/article/the-islamic-state-has-shut-down-57-afghan-schools?utm_source=vicenewstwitter
- Benard, C. (2002). Veiled courage, inside the Afghan women’s resistance. New York: Broadway Books
- Brodsky, A. E., Portnoy, G. A., Scheibler, J. E., Welsh, E. A., & Talwar, G. (2012). Beyond (the ABCs): Education, community, and feminism in Afghanistan. Journal of Community Psychology, 40(1), 159-181.
- Ewans, M. (2002). Afghanistan, a short history of its people and politics. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
- Glad, M. (2009, September). Knowledge on Fire: Attacks on Education in Afghanistan. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/Knowledge_on_Fire_Report.pdf
- Griffin, M. (2001). Reaping the whirlwind, the Taliban movement in Afghanistan. London: Pluto Press.
- Horsley, T. (2015). Child-to-Child Risk Education. Journal of ERW and Mine Action, 19(2), 31-34.
- Klein, J. (2010, April). A tale of soldiers and a school. Time, 175(16), 20-27.
- Mansory, A. (2007, May). Drop out study in basic education level of schools in Afghanistan. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238731904_Drop_Out_Study_in_Basic_Education_Level_of_Schools_in_Afghanistan
- Mashriqi, K. (2016). Afghanistan Women Perceptions of Access to Higher Education. Journal of Research Initiatives, 2(1), 1-21.
- Matinuddin, K. (1999). The Taliban phenomenon. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Ministry of Education, Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan. (2004, August 10). National Report on the Development of Education in Afghanistan. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE47/English/Natreps/reports/afghanistan.pdf
- Pont, A. M. (2001). Blind chickens and social animals: Creating spaces for Afghan women’s narratives under the Taliban. Portland, OR: Mercy Corps.
- Quraishi, N. (Director). (2015, November 17). PBS Frontline ISIS in Afghanistan [Video file]. Retrieved March 3, 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/isis-in-afghanistan/
- Shayan, Z. (2015). Gender Inequality in Education in Afghanistan: Access and Barriers. Open Journal of Philosophy, 05(05), 277-284.
- Skaine, R. (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
- Trani, J., Bakhshi, P., & Nandipati, A. (2012). ‘Delivering’ education; maintaining inequality. The case of children with disabilities in Afghanistan. Cambridge Journal of Education, 42(3), 345-365.
- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. (2014, July 17). International Literacy Data 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2016, from http://www.uis.unesco.org/literacy/Pages/literacy-data-release-2014.aspx
- U.S. Army, Center for Army Lessons Learned. (2009). Commander’s guide to money as a weapons system: tactics, techniques, and procedures. (Handbook No. 09-27 April, 2009).
- Vorgetts, F. (2002). A Vision of Justice, Equality, and Peace. In Mehta, S. (Ed.), Women for Afghan women, shattering myths and claiming the future (pp. 93-101). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Woodward, B. (2002). Bush at war. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Graduating from College: The Impossible Dream for Most First-Generation Students
Joseph Sanacore & Anthony Palumbo
Manuscript Views: 398 | Manuscript Download: 218
Some colleges engage in unethical practices to balance their budgets, such as accepting “marginal” students who qualify for loans and government-backed financial aid but not providing these students with the services and programs they need to achieve success. Too many low-income students who are often first-generation students find themselves gamed when they meet with admissions counselors who help them to complete loan applications but neglect to explain the difference between being accepted to college and graduating from college—and the subsequent need to repay student loans. As a response to this negative scenario, 13 high-impact strategies are suggested which increase the chances of helping first-generation students to achieve success and to graduate in a timely fashion.
Keywords: First-Generation Students, Graduation Rates, High-Impact Strategies, Caring
- Achieve. (2014). Rising to the challenge: Are high school graduates prepared for college and work? Retrieved from http://www.achieve.org/rising-challenge-powerpoint
- Ambrose, E. (2014). Student debt traps older borrowers: Payments persist into their retirement years. AARP Bulletin, 55(10), 28-30.
- Antonetti, J., & Garver, J. (2015). 17,000 classroom visits can’t be wrong: Strategies that engage students, promote active learning, and boost achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
- Best, J., & Best, E. (2014, October 2). Student-loan debt: A federal toxic asset. The Wall Street Journal, A17.
- Brooks, D. (2004, March 30). Stressed for success. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/30/opinion/stressed-for-success.html
- Burd, S. (2014a). Undermining Pell volume ll: How colleges’ pursuit of prestige and revenue is hurting low-income students. New America. Retrieved from www.newamerica.org
- Burd, S. (2014b, September 18). Who pays for prestige? New America. Retrieved from http://newamerica.org/new-america/who-pays-for-prestige/ .n
- Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2014). Community college survey of student engagement: 2014 key findings. Center for Community College Student Engagement, University of Texas, Austin. Retrieved from www.cccse.org
- Cerna, O., Perez, P., & Saenz, V., 2007). Examining the pre-college attributes and values of Latina/o college graduates. HERI Research Report Number 3, Higher Education Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles.
- Chronicle of Higher Education. (2013). College completion: Who graduates from college, who doesn’t, and why it matters. Retrieved from http://collegecompletion.chronicle.com/state/#state=ny§or=private_four
- Eddy, S., & Hogan, K. (2014). Getting under the hood: How and for whom does increasing course structure work? American Society for Cell Biology. Retrieved from http://www.lifescied.org/content/13/3/453.full
- Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum. (2014-2015). Day after debt: A call for student loan relief. Michigan State University. MI: East Lansing. Retrieved from http://broadmuseum.msu.edu/exhibitions/day-after-debt-call-student-loan-relief
- Flaherty, C. (2014, September 3). Advising freshmen, empowering faculty. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2014/09/03/sewanee-puts-faculty-back-charge-freshman-advising
- Freeman, S., Eddy, S., McDonough, M., Smith, M., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. Retrieved from www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1319030111
- Gallup-Purdue Index releases inaugural findings of national landmark study (2014). Retrieved fromhttp://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2014/Q2/gallup-purdue-index-releases-inaugural-findings-of-national-landmark-study.html
- Gatepoint Research. (2014). Trends in boosting student retention. Retrieved from www.blackboard.com
- Hammond, J., & Senor, R. (2014). The mentor: Leading with love: The ultimate resource. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
- Harris, D. (2014). 10% Happier. New York: HarperCollins.
- Hidden curriculum (2014, August 26). Rigor. In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum
- Jensen, J., Kummer, T., & Godoy, P. (2015). Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE—Life Sciences Education. Retrieved from http://www.lifescied.org/content/14/1/ar5.full
- Mitchell, J. (2014, February 18). Student-debt rise concentrated among those with poor credit. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/ 2014/02/18/student-debt-rise-concentrated-among-those-with-poor-credit/
- My Brother’s Keeper. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/my-brothers-keeper
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). Projections of education statistics to 2014. United States Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005074
- National Center for Learning Disabilities (n.d.). Common warning signs of dysgraphia in college students and adults. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/types-learning- disabilities/dysgraphia/common-warning-signs-of-dysgraphia-in-college-students-and-adults
- Parker, C. (2014, April 22). Stanford researcher: First-generation college students benefit from discussing class differences. Stanford Report. Stanford University. CA: Stanford. Retrieved from http://news.stanford.edu/pr/2014/pr-first-gen-resources-042214.html
- Perna, L., & Titus, M. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: An examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76(5), 485-518.
- Rivard, R. (2014, September 17). Undermining Pell. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2014/09/17/think-tank-backs-changes-pell-pointing-out-tricks-colleges-play-merit-aid
- Rivera, C. (2015, July 27). States, U.S. must boost graduation rates, Duncan says in slamming college costs. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.storyclash.com/States-US-must-boost-graduation-rates-Duncan-says-in-slamming-college-costs-4593645
- Rogers, M. (2013, October 2). Less choice, more mainstreaming. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/10/02/remedial-reform-and-completion-key-latino-students-success-politician-argues
- Ross, T. (2014). How black students tend to learn science. The Atlantic: Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/12/how-black-students-tend-to-learn-science/383387/
- Russo-Gleicher, R. (2011). The empty desk: Caring strategies to talk to students about their attendance. Thought & Action, 27, 63-76. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/50510.htm
- Sanacore, J., & Palumbo, A. (2015a, April). A high school diploma doesn’t guarantee college success. Commentary: Education Week, 34(28), 22-23, 25.
- Sanacore, J., & Palumbo, A. (2015b, May). Let’s help first-generation students succeed. The Chronicle of Higher Education, LXI(36), A22-A23.
- Sanacore, J., & Piro, J. (2014). Multimodalities, neuroenhancement, and literacy learning. International Journal of Progressive Education, 10(2), 56-72.
- Scrivener, S., Weiss, M., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C., & Fresques, H. (2015). Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for Developmental Education Students. NY and CA: MDRC.
- Snow, C. (2013). Cold versus warm close reading: Building students’ stamina for struggling with text. Reading Today, 30(6), 18-19.
- Southern Education Foundation. (2015). A new majority research bulletin: Low-income students now a majority in the nation’s public schools. Retrieved from http://www.southerneducation.org/Our-Strategies/Research-and-Publications/New-Majority-Diverse-Majority-Report-Series/A-New-Majority-2015-Update-Low-Income-Students-Now
- Stephens, N., Hamedani, M, & Destin, M. (2014). Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students’ academic performance and all students’ college transition. Psychological Science, 25(4), 943-953.
- TICAS. (2014). Student debt and the class of 2013. Project on Student Debt of The Institute for College Access and Success. Retrieved from www.ticas.org
- Townsend, R. (2007). Improving black student retention through social involvement and first-year programs. The Bulletin, 75(6). Retrieved from http://www.acui.org/publications/bulletin/article.aspx?issue=454&id=5474
- Wieman, C. (2014, August). Stop lecturing me. Scientific American, 311(2), 70-71.
American progressive education and the schooling of poor children: A brief history of a philosophy in practice
Manuscript Views: 199 | Manuscript Download: 151
This paper provides a historical analysis of the past century of progressive education, within the general socio-political context of schooling within the US. The purpose of this review is to create a social, historical and philosophical context for understanding the current narrative of progressive education that exists in educational policy discussions today. Major scholarly works related to progressive education are situated within the political climate of the times of their publication. Over the course of this discussion an argument is presented that shows how progressive education has been related to the education and emancipation of disadvantaged children at different points according to the societal emphasis of the time. The final section of the paper proposes a radical form of emancipatory teaching that requires a wide range of abilities among teachers and is matched to elements of the moments in history when progressive education was most effective for poor children.
Keywords: Inexpert raters, generalizability theory, variability of ratings, writing assessment
- Anderson, J.E. (1956). Child Development: An Historical Perspective. Child Development 27, 2
- Bruce, B. C. & Eryaman, M. Y. (2015). Introduction: Progressive Impuls in Education. In M. Y.
- Eryaman & B. C. Bruce (Eds.). International Handbook of Progressive Education. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 1-52
- Calkins, L. (1983). Lessons from a Child. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
- International Journal of Progressive Education, Volume 13 Number 2, 2017
- Coates, Ta-Nehisi. (2015) The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration.” The Atlantic.
- Carnoy, M. & Rothstein, R. (2013) What do international tests really show us about U.S. student performance? Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
- Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: “Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children” Harvard Educational Review 58, 3, 280
- Delpit, L. (1995). Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. NY: New Press
- Delpit, L. (2013). Multiplication is for White People: Raising Expectations for Other People’s Children. NY: New Press
- Dennison, G. (1969). The Lives of Children: The Story of the 1rst Street School. New York: Random House
- Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. New York: Simon & Schuster
- Dewey, J. (1938). Art as Experience. New York: Minton Balch
- Dewey, J. (1938). Experience as Education. New York: Collier.
- Dewey, J. (1997). The Child and the Curriculum, the School and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Emdin, C. (2016). For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood—and the Rest of Y’all too: Reality Pedagogy and Urban Education. Boston, MA: Beacon Press
- Eryaman, M.Y. (2008). Teaching as practical philosophy. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
- Eryaman, M. Y. & Bruce, B. C. (Eds.) (2015). International Handbook of Progressive Education. New York: Peter Lang.
- Eryaman, M. Y. & Riedler, M. (2009). From interpretive progressivism to radical progressivism in teacher education: Teaching as praxis. In M. Y. Eryaman (Ed.). Peter McLaren, education, and the struggle for liberation. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
- Freire, P. (1968). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum
- Giddings, G. J. (2001). Infusion of Afro-centric Content into the School Curriculum: Toward an Effective Movement. Journal of Black Studies 31, 4, 462-482
- Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, (1971). East Harlem Block Schools, New York, NY, Berkeley, CA: ERIC education series
- Graham, E. (2013). ‘A Nation at Risk’ Turns 30: Where did it Take Us?” NEA Today 14, 8
- Goodman, K. S. (1981). Miscue analysis: Applications to reading instruction. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills.
- Goodman, K. S. (1986). What’s Whole in Whole Language? Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
- Hall, G.S. (1903). Child Study at Clark University: An Impending New Step. The American Journal of Psychology 14, 1, 96-106.
- Hannah-Jones, G. (2016). Choosing a school for my daughter in a segregated city. New York Times Magazine
- hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York:Routledge
- Katz, M. (1976). A History of Compulsory Education Laws. Phi Beta Kappan 75, 39
- Kohn, A. (2011). Poor teaching for poor children…In the name of reform. Education Week
- Kozol, J. (1967). Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children
- International Journal of Progressive Education, Volume 13 Number 2, 2017 in the Boston Public Schools. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
- Lee, K. (2011). “Impacts of the Duration of Head Start Enrollment on Children's Academic Outcomes: Moderation Effects of Family Risk Factors and Earlier Outcomes.” Journal of Community Psychology 39, 6, 698.
- Lee, V. E., J. Brooks-Gunn, E. Schnur, and F. R. Liaw, (1990). Are Head Start Effects Sustained? A Longitudinal Follow-up Comparison of Disadvantaged Children Attending Head Start, No Preschool and other Preschool Programs. Child Development 61, 495–507.
- Meier, D. (1995). The Power of their Ideas: Lessons for America from a Small School in Harlem. Beacon Press
- Montessori, M. (1967). The Absorbent Mind. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
- Neill, A.S. (1960). Summerhill: A Radical Approach to Child Rearing. New York: Pocket Books
- O’Gorman, N. (1970). The Storefront: A Community of Children on 129th Street & Madison. New York: Harper and Row
- Rickford, R. (2011). Integration, Black Nationalism and Radical Democratic Transformation in African-American Philosophies of Education, 1966-74, in The New Black History: Revisiting the Second Transformation, edited by Manning Marable and Kai Hinton, 287-317. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
- Riedler, M. & Eryaman M.Y. (2016). Complexity, Diversity and Ambiguity in Teaching and Teacher Education: Practical Wisdom, Pedagogical Fitness and Tact of Teaching. International Journal of Progressive Education. 12(3): 172-186
- Rousseau, J.J. (1762). Emile: Treatise on education. New York: Basic Books
- Senn, M. J. (1975). Insights on the child development movement in the United States. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 40, 3
- U.S. Department of Education (1983). A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform The National Commission on Excellence in Education.
Study of the Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Turkish Students According to Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012
Cem Oktay Güzelleri, Mehmet Taha Eser & Gökhan Aksu
Manuscript Views: 277 | Manuscript Download: 119
This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation for mathematics exams, completing homework on time, interest in mathematics, enjoying mathematics and enjoying reading about mathematics were used as independent variables. The studysample consisted of 4478 students participating in PISA 2012. Probit regression analysis was used to analyse the data. According to the findings, it was determined that there was a positive interaction between the dependent variable and all the independent variables except regularly completing homeworkand that the correct classification ratio of the model was 58 (44%).
Keywords: Program for International Student Assessment(PISA), Mathematics achievement, Probit regression
- Acar, T. (2012). Türkiye’nin PISA 2009 sonuçlarına göre OECD’ye üye ve aday ülkeler arasındaki yeri. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 12(4), 2561–2572.
- Agresti, A. (2007). An introduction to categorical data analysis(2nd Ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley&Sons.
- Akarsu, S. (2009). Öz-Yeterlik, motivasyon ve PISA 2003 matematik okuryazarlığı üzerine uluslararası bir karşılaştırma: Türkiye ve Finlandiya. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Bolu.
- Alkhateeb, H. (2001). Gender differences in mathematics achievement among high school students in the United Arab Emirates: 1991–2000. School Scienceand Mathematics, 101(1), 5–9.
- Altman D.G. (1991). Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman&Hall.
- Altun, M., Aydın, N., Akkaya, R.,& Uzel, D. (2012). PISA perspektifinden ilköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin matematik başarı düzeyinin tahlili. Retrieved from http://doktora2012.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/zpisa-kuyeb.doc
- Anıl, D. (2009). Uluslararası Öğrenci Başarılarını Değerlendirme Programı (PISA)’nda Türkiye’deki öğrencilerin fen bilimleri başarılarını etkileyen faktörler. Eğitim ve Bilim, 34(152), 87–100.
- Asil, M., & Gelbal, S. (2012). PISA öğrenci anketinin kültürler arası eşdeğerliği. Eğitim ve Bilim, 37(166), 236–249.
- Aşkın, Ö. E., & Gökalp, F. (2013). Comparing the predictiveand classification performances of logistic regression and neural networks: A case study on TIMMS 2011. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042813046910
- Baya’a, N. F. (1990). Mathematics anxiety, mathematics achievement, gender, and socio economic status among Arab secondary students in Israel. InternationalJournal of Mathematics Education in Science and Technology,21(2): 319–324.
- Berberoğlu, G. (2007). Türk bakış açısından PISA araştırma sonuçları. Retrieved from http://www.konrad.org.tr/Egitimturk/07girayberberoglu.pdf adresinden alınmıştır
- Bindak, R. (2009). Pısa 2009 araştırmasında matematik okuryazarlık düzeyini etkileyen bilgisayar ile ilgili değişkenlerin lojistik regresyon ile analizi. Retrievedfrom https://www.pegem.net/Akademi/sempozyumbildiri_detay.aspx?id=137339
- Byrne, B. M. (1988). Structural equation modeling with Lisrel, Prelis and Simplis: Basic concepts, aplications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates.
- Çam, A. (2014). 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin PISA matematik testi başarı düzeylerinin bazı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çanakkale.
- Cebeci, İ. (2012). Krizleri incelemede kullanılan nitel tercih modelleri: Türkiye için bir probit model uygulaması: (1988–2009). İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Dergisi, 62(1), 127–146.
- Çiftçi, A. (2006). According to mathematics subtest results of PISA 2003 investigation of some factors' effect on student achievement in Turkey. Unpublished masters thesis. Ankara: Hacettepe University.
- Doğan, N.,& Barış, F. (2010). Tutum, değer ve özyeterlik değişkenlerinin TIMSS-1999 ve TIMMS-2007 sınavlarında öğrencilerin matematik başarılarını yordama düzeyleri. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi, 1(1), 44–50.
- Dünya Bankası. (2013). Türkiye’de okullarda mükemmeli teşvik etmek. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- ERG (2014). Türkiye’de PISA 2012 analizi: Matematikte öğrenci motivasyonu, Öz-yeterlik, kaygı ve başarısızlık algısı. İstanbul: Eğitim Reformu Girişimi.
- Eryaman, M. Y. (2007). Examining the characteristics of literacy practices in a technology-rich sixth grade classroom. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET) 6(2), 26-41.
- Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Ed). London: Sage Publishing.
- Fleischman, H. L., Hopstock, P. J., Pelczar, M. P.,& Shelley, B. E. (2010). Highlights from PISA 2009: performance of U.S. 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, and science literacy in an international context. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
- Garson, G. D. (2008). Missing values analysis and data imputation. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishers.
- Gürsakal, S. (2012). PISA 2009 öğrenci başarı düzeylerini etkileyen faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 17(1), 441–452.
- Kreiner, S. (2011). Is the foundation under PISA solid? Araştırma Raporu: University of Copenhagen.
- Ma, M. (1995). Gender differences in mathematics achievement between Canadian and Asian education systems. The Journal of Educational Research, 89, 118–127.
- Magnani, M. (2004). Techniques for dealing with missing data in knowledge discovery tasks. Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna.
- MEB (2014). TIMSS 2011 ulusal matematik ve fen raporu: 8. sınıflar. Ankara: İşkur Matbaacılık.
- Meier, S. T., & Schmeck, R. R. (1985). The burned-out college student: A descriptive profile. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 63–69.
- Micklewright, J., & Georgina, B. (2004). Using international surveys of achievement and literacy: A view from the outside. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
- OECD (2004). Learning for tomorrow’s world first results from PISA 2003. Paris: OECD. OECD (2006). Assessing scientific, reading and mathematical literacy, A framework for
- PISA 2006. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/35/37464175.pdf
- OECD (2013a). PISA 2012 Assessment and analytical framework: Mathematics, reading, science, problem solving and financial literacy. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/PISA%202012%20framework%20e-
- OECD (2013a). PISA 2012 results: What students know and can do – student performance in mathematics, reading, and science (Volume I). PISA. OECD Publishing.
- OECD (2013b). PISA 2012 results: What students know and can do – student performance in mathematics, reading, and science (Volume II) . PISA. OECD Publishing.
- Özer Y. & Anıl D. (2011). Öğrencilerin fen ve matematik başarılarını etkileyen faktörlerin yapısal eşitlik modeli ile incelenmesi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 41: 313-324.
- Özer, Y. & Özberk, E. H. (2011). PISA 2009:Türk öğrencilerin okuma becerileri, fen ve matematik okuryazarlığının bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. 20. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı. Burdur.
- Özer Özkan, Y.,& Doğan, B. (2012). İlköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin okuma becerilerinin kestirilmesinde etkili olan değişkenlerin belirlenmesi. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 6(4), 667-680.
- Polit, D. (1996). Data analysis and statistics for nursing research. Stamford, CT: Appleton&Lange.
- Royston, P. (2004). Multiple imputation of missing values. The Stata Journal, 4(3), 227–241.
- Şirin, S. R., &Vatanartıran, S. (2014). PISA 2012 değerlendirmesi: Türkiye için veriye dayalı eğitim reformu önerileri. İstanbul: TÜSİAD Yayınları,
- Tabachnick, B. G.,&Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using multivariate statistics. London: Pearson.
- Tedmem (2014). PISA 2012: Türkiye üzerinde değerlendirme ve öneriler. Ankara: Öncü Basımevi.
- Uysal, E. (2009). İlköğretim sekizinci sınıf öğrencilerinin matematik okuryazarlık düzeyi. Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, Eskişehir.
- Wood, B. (2007). The Impact of Students’ skills in self-regulated learning on mathematics literacy and problem solving scales as measured by PISA 2003: A comparison of the United States and Finland. PhD Thesis, California StateUniversity, LongBeach.
- Yılmaz, H. B.,&Aztekin, S. (2012). Türkiye’deki 15 yaş grubu öğrencilerin matematik okuryazarlığı başarılarını etkileyen bazı faktörlerin okul ve öğrenci düzeyine göreincelenmesi. Retrieved from http://kongre.nigde.edu.tr/xufbmek/dosyalar/tam_metin/pdf/2359-30_05_2012- 12_23_51.pdf
- Zopluoğlu, C. (2014). Uluslararası öğrenci değerlendirme programı (PISA) 2012 Türkiye Değerlendirmesi. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/6057970/Uluslararas%C4%B1_%C3%96%C4%9Frenci_De%C4%9Ferlendirme_Program%C4%B1_PISA_2012_T%C3%BCrkiye_De%C4%9Ferlendirmesi_Matematik
An Art Educator’s Journey of Becoming a Researcher: A Self-Reflective Auto-Ethnography of Identity Construction and Personal Growth
Manuscript Views: 231 | Manuscript Download: 117
In this self-reflective auto-ethnographic research, the author shares her experiences of introspection, change and professional growth as an art educator in an international context. Auto-ethnography is an approach to qualitative inquiry in which the researcher employs self-reflection to explore her personal experiences and connect these auto-biographical experiences to wider socio-cultural and political issues in society. This study recollects stories of the author’s personal journey as an Austrian art educator in the United States from a critical pedagogy perspective. Thereby, these stories present personalized narratives of moments of vulnerability, and the challenges of transforming traditional understandings of research and teaching into critical and participatory art pedagogies and practices. This self-reflective approach provides the author an opportunity to speak from the inside out as a researcher and educator having experienced a deeper understanding of “self” and to explore the changes that taken place in her activities along her journey of challenging the status quo in teaching and doing research.
Keywords: Auto-ethnography, identity construction, self-reflection, art education, critical pedagogy, participatory art
- Adele, ade! (2006, January 25), Falter. Retrieved August 9, 2007, from http://www.falter.at
- Ansturm auf Klimt-Bilder: Belvedere auf Rekordkurs [A rush for Klimt paintings], (2006, February 5). Die Presse. Retrieved June 1, 2007, from http://www.diepresse.com
- Anderson, L. (2003, summer). BOMB — Artists in Conversation: Marina Abramović by Laurie Anderson. BOMBmagazine. Retrieved September 22, 2015, from www.bombmagzine.org
- Beller, S. (2002). What is Austrian about Austrian culture? In G. Diem-Wille, L. Nagler, & F. Stadler (Eds.), Weltanschauungen des Wiener Fin de Siècle 1900/2000 (pp. 25–42). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
- Beller, S. (2006). A concise history of Austria. Cambridge: University Press.
- Berger, D., & Steiner, B. (Eds.). (2003). Inventory: The work of Christine Hill and Volksboutique. Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz.
- Boylan, P. (1990). Museums and cultural identity. Museums Journal 90, 29–33.
- Brook–Shepherd, G. (1996). The Austrians: A thousand-year odyssey. London: Harper Collins.
- Bruckmüller, E. (2003). The Austrian nation: Cultural consciousness and socio-political processes (L. A. Bangerter, Trans.). Riverside, CA: Ariadne. (Original work published in 1996).
- Bruner, J. (1987). Life as narrative. Social Research 54(1), 11-32.
- Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Clandinin, J. D., & Connelly, M. F., (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Crooke, E. (2001). Confronting a troubled history: Which past in Northern Ireland's museums? International Journal of Heritage Studies 7(2), 119–136.
- Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. New York: Pedigree Books.
- Ellis, C. (2004). The ethnographic I: A methodological novel about autoethnography. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
- Ellis, C., & Bochner, A. P. (2000). Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp.733-768). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Eryaman, M. Y. (2007). From reflective practice to practical wisdom: Toward a post-foundational teacher education. International Journal of Progressive Education, 3(1), 87-107.
- Eryaman, M. Y. (2008). Writing, method and hermeneutics: Towards an existential pedagogy. Elementary Education Online, 7(1), 2-14.
- Falk, J., & Dierking, L. (2000). Learning from museums. New York: Alta Mira.
- Finkelpearl, T. (2000). Rick Low on designing Project Row Houses. In T. Finkelpearl (Ed.), Dialogues in public art , (pp. 234-257). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Finkelpearl, T. (2013). What we made: Conversations on art and social cooperation. Durham: Duke University Press.
- Giroux, H. A. (1984). Rethinking the language of schooling. Language Arts 61, 33-40.
- Hein, G. (1998). Learning in the museum. London: Routledge.
- Helguera P, (2011). Education for socially engaged art. New York: Jorge Pinto Books.
- Hooper-Greenhill, E. (Ed.). (1999). The educational role of the museum (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
- Interview with Christine Hill (2007, July 4). Retrieved September 2, 2015, from http://we-make-money-not-art.com
- Jordan, G., & Weedon, C. (1995). Cultural politics: Class, gender, race, and the postmodern world. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Josselson, R., & Lieblich, A. (2001). Narrative research and humanism. In K. J. Schneider, J.F.T. Bugenthal, & J.F. Pierson (Eds.), The handbook of humanistic psychology (pp. 275-289). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Kelly, S., & Iles, C. (2004). Marina Abramović: The house with the ocean view. Milan: Charta.
- Klimt: Bilder werden am Montag abgehängt [Klimt: Paintings will be taken down on Monday]. (2006, February 4). Die Presse. Retrieved June 1, 2007, from http://www.diepresse.com
- Lacy, S. (Ed.). (1995). Mapping the terrain: New genre public art. Seattle: Bay Press.
- Linde, C. (1993). Life stories: The creation of coherence. New York: Oxford University.
- Lippard (1984), Get the message? A decade of art for social change. New York: E.P. Dutton.
- McNamara, T. (1997). Theorizing social identity: What do we mean by social identity? Competing frameworks, competing discourses. TESOL Quarterly 31(3), 561–567.
- MacIntyre, A. (1981). After virtue: A study in moral theory. London: Duckworth.
- Midgette, A. (2007, August 30). A quiet cultural forces leaves New York richer as he returns to Austria. New York Times. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from www.nytimes.com
- Maloney, P. (2015, April 23). Interview with Rick Lowe by bad at sports. Artpractical. Retrieved September 25, 2015, from http://www.artpractical.com
- Miranda, C. A. (2014, April 7). How the art of social practice is changing the world, one row house at a time. Art News. Retrieved September 23, 2015, from www.artnews.com
- Muschamp, H. (2002, April 19). A gift of Vienna that skips the schlag. New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007, from www.nytimes.com
- Norton Peirce, B. (1995). Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly 29(1), 9-31.
- Polkinghorne, D. E. (1988). Narrative knowing and the human science. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
- Polkinghorne, D. E. (1991). Narrative and Self-concept, Journal of Narrative and Life History 1(2-3), 135-153.
- Riedler, M. (2009). Das Erkennen verborgener Transformationsmöglichkeiten im Bereich der Kunstvermittlung [Unveiling transformative possibilities hidden away within the context of museum education], in C. Buschkühle (Ed.). Horizonte: Internationale Kunstpädagogik. InSEA Heidelberg Conference Publication. Oberhausen: Athena-Verlag, pp. 575-584.
- Riedler, M. (2010). The nature and notion of museums in the age of globalization, in E. Manley Delacruz, A. Arnold, A. Kuo & M. Parsons (Eds.).Anthology Globalization, Art, and Education. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association (NAEA), pp. 54-59.
- Riedler, M. (2012). “Learning to be Austrian: A meso-ethnographic museum and national identity analysis”. International Journal of Educational Researchers 3(2), 31-48.
- Roberts, L. (1997). From knowledge to narrative: Educators and the changing museum. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
- Rogoff, I. (2000). Terra infirma: Geography’s visual culture. New York: Routledge.
- Serota, N. (2000). Experience or interpretation: The dilemma of museums of modern art. New York: Thames and Hudson.
- Wagner, M. (1991). Kultur und Politik—Politik und Kunst [Culture and Politics—Politics and Art], Vienna: Böhlau.
- Weedon, C. (1987). Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Zweig, S. (1943). Die Welt von Gestern [World of Yesterday], New York: Viking Press.
The determinants of the types of selves in relation to foreign language teachers
Manuscript Views: 130 | Manuscript Download: 107
In the field of Modern Higher Education, the background of teachers as native or non-native speakers of the language they teach is of major concern in the field of teacher education. First things first, in teacher education each teacher has an ideal self of her or his own as non-native English-speaking teachers of English, as a second or foreign language, or English as an additional language. Teachers perceive differences between their teaching [styles/approaches] and how this perception influences the teaching behavior and attitudes of the non-native speaking teachers matters a lot. The question is: Should they develop and enhance rather than merely maintain in a static self their proficiency level? This question is also related with the self of the foreign language teacher. A foreign language teacher should never say this: “As a non-native teacher, I can never truly master the target language.” Conversely, a non-native foreign language teacher should not articulate the following statement, which is contrary to professional self: “I have near-native proficiency, but I can’t aspire to mastery of the language.”All of this boils down to mean that the teacher has weak professional self which indicates the immatured self-fulfillment in efficiency in the target language.
Keywords: Determinant, Ideal Self, Ought-To Self, Feared Teacher Self, Professional Self
Árva, V. and Medgyes, P. (2000): “Natives and non-natives teachers in the classroom”. System, 28 (3), pp. 355-372.
Boldero, J., Moretti, M., Bell, R., & Francis, J. (2005). Self-discrepancies and negative affect: A primer on when to look for specificity, and how to find it. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57(3), 139-147
Cook, V. J. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 33 (2),185-209.
Cook, V. J. (2003). Effects of the second language on the first. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Coppieters, R. (1987). “Competence difference between native and near-native speakers”, in Language, 63, 544-73
Demirezen, M. (2008a) “Identity Problems of Non-native Teachers of English in Teacher Education,” The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XIII, No. 8, August,
Dörnyei, Z. (2005).The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Machwach, N. J.: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
Higgins, E. T. (1989). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect, Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.
Dweck, D. C. & Molden, C. S. (2006). American Psychologist. Vol. 61, No. 3, 192–203.
Hardin, E. & Lakin, J.(2009). The integrated self-discrepancy index: A reliable and valid measure of self-discrepancies. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(3), 245-253.
Foley, J. A. (2007). English as a global language: My two satangs’ worth. RELC Journal, 38(1), 7-17.
Higgins, E. T., Roney, C., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance: Distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 276-286.
Higgins, E. T.(2012). Beyond pleasure and pain: How motivation works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Horwitz, E. K. (1996): “Even Teachers Get the Blues: Recognizing and Alleviating Language
Teachers’ Feelings of Foreign Language Anxiety”, in Foreign Language Annals 29 (3), 364-372.
Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a lingua franca: attitude and identity. Oxford: OUP.
Kachru, B. B.(1982).The other tongue: English across cultures. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru, B. B and Nelson, L. C. (1996). "World Englishes." Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Eds. McKay L. Sandra and Hornberger H. Nancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 71-102.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2006). Which model of English: Native-speaker, nativized or lingua franca? In R. Rubdy & M. Saraceni (Eds.), English in the world – Global rules, global roles London: Continuum, 71-83.
Kohler, M. (2015). Teachers as mediators in the foreign language classroom. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Leung, C., Harris, R., & Rampton, B. (1997). The idealized native speaker, reified ethnicities, and classroom realities [Electronic version]. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 543- 560.
Llurda, E. (2004). Non-native-speaker teachers and English as an international language. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(3), 314-323.
Markus, H. & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.
Matsuda, A. & Matsuda, P. K. (2001). Autonomy and collaboration in teacher education: Journal sharing among native and nonnative English-speaking teachers”. CATESOL Journal, 13, 1: 109-121.
Maum, R. (2002). “Nonnative-English-speaking teachers in the English teaching profession”, in ERIC Digest. [On-line]. Available at: http://www.cal.org/ericcll/digest/0209maum.html.
Medgyes, P. (1983).The schizophrenic teacher, ELT Journal Volume 37/1 January 1983, 1-6.
Medgyes, P. (1992). “Native or non-native: Who’s worth more?”, in ELT Journal, 46, 4: 340-349.
Medgyes, P. (1994): The Non-Native Teacher. London: MacMillan Publishers.
Medgyes, P. (2001). When the teacher is a non-native speaker. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.). London: Heinle & Heinle, 429-442.
Merino, I. V. (1997). Native English-Speaking Teachers versus Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses 10 (1997), 69-79.
Modiano, M. (1999). International English in the global village. English Today, 15(2), 22-27.
Paikeday, T. (1985). The Native Speaker is Dead!. Ontario: Paikeday Publishing, Inc.
Pakir, A. (1999). Connecting English in the context of internationalization [Electronic version]. TESOL Quarterly, 33(1), 103-114.
Phillips, A. (2005). Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(5), 703-713.
Piller, I. (2002). Passing for a native speaker: Identity and success in second language learning. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 6, (2), 179-206.
Phillipson, R. (1996). ELT: The native speaker’s burden. In T. Hedge & N. Whitney (Eds.), Power, pedagogy & practice.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 23-30.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a person: A psychotherapists view of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Reves, T. and Medgyes, P. (1994): “The Non-Native English Speaking EFL/ESL Teacher’s Self-Image: An International Survey”, SYSTEM 22 (3), pp. 353-367.
Rowe, K. & Sikes, J. (1989). The impact of professional development on teachers’ self perceptions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 5, 129–141.
Samimy, R. & Brutt-Griffler, J. (1999). To be a native or nonnative speaker: Perceptions of “nonnative” students in a graduate TESOL program. In G. Braine (Ed.), Nonnative educators in English language teaching, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 127-144).
Selinker, L. "Interlanguage." IRAL 10 (1972), 219-31.
Sommers, S. (2004). Why native speaker teacher programs don’t work? Retrieved from http://scottsommers.blogs.com/taiwanweblog/2004/10/index.html
Stronge, J. H. & Ostrander, L. P. (1997). Client surveys in teacher evaluation. In J. H. Stronge (Ed.), Evaluating teaching: A guide to current thinking and best practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 129-161.
Stevens, K.N. (2000). Acoustic phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press TESOL 2006. Position statement against discrimination of non-native teachers of teaching English (http://www.tesol.org/docs/pdf/5889.pdf?sfvrsn=2, retrieved in 02 September, 2015)
Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers – A reflective approach (2nd ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Widdowson, H. George. "ELT and EL Teachers: Matters Arising." ELT Journal 46.4 (1992): 333-39. http://www.tesol.org/docs/pdf/5889.pdf?sfvrsn=2, retrieved in 02 September, 2015).
Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: insight from David Riesman
LAU Grace & HO Kwok Keung
Manuscript Views: 164 | Manuscript Download: 105
This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different educational modes following the change of time. The other theme relates the social aspect of young children in school on the issue of ‘loneliness’ and ‘friendship’. These aspects would then be exemplified and studied through the inspirational writings of David Riesman for identifying the cause of their loneliness under the sociological lens. A corresponding mode of curriculum and pedagogic practices had been identified with the different types of personalities mentioned in Riesman’s book for the readers to reflect on.
Keywords: Sociology of Education, Early Childhood Education, David Riesman, Curriculum and Pedagogic practices, Hong Kong.
- Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Barton, L. (2007). Education and society: 25 years of the British Journal of Sociology of Education. Oxon: Routledge.
- Boghossian, P. (2007). Fear of knowledge: against relativism and constructivism. Oxford: Clarendon.
- Bray, M. and Koo, D.Y.R. (2004). Language and education. In M. Bray and D.Y.R. Koo (Eds.), Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao, 141-158. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
- Canovan, M. (2000). Arendt’s theory of totalitarianism: a reassessment. In D. Villa (Ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Hannah Arendt. Cambridge University Press.
- Carr, W. (1987). What is an educational practice? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 21, 163-186.
- Chan, K.S. L & Chan, L. (2002). Reforming early childhood education in Hong Kong: Meeting the challenges. In Chan, L.K.S. & Mellor, E.J. (Eds), International Developments in Early Childhood Services, 81-95, New York: Peter Lang.
- Corsaro, W.A. (2011). The sociology of childhood. California: Pine Forge Press.
- Coulter, D. (2011). What counts as action in educational action research? Educational Action Research, 10 (2), 189-206.
- Dewey, J.(1938). Experience and education. Kappa Delta Pi Publications
- Education Bureau (2006). Guide to the Pre-primary curriculum. Hong Kong: Government Printing Department.
- Education Commission (2000). Reform proposals for the education system in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
- Education Department (1981). Primary education and pre-primary services. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
- Eisner, E. (1992). Curriculum ideologies. In P.W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Curriculum, London: Macmillan, pp.302-326.
- Fein, G.G. (1986). The play of children. In Fein & Mary Rivkin (Ed.), The young children at play, Reviews of Research (Vol. 4), Washington: NAEYC, Preface vii.
- Floud, J., Halsey, A.H., & Martin, F. (1957). Social class and educational opportunity. London: Heinemann.
- Fosnot, C. T. (1996). Constructivism: theory, perspective, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Penguin.
- Gasset, J.O.Y. (1996). The crowd phenomenon. In Cahoone, L. (Eds.), From modernism to postmodernism: An anthology, Oxon: Blackwell, pp.219-225.
- Gordon, A. M. & Williams-Browne, K. (2001). Beginnings & beyond. New York: Delmer Publishers.
- Guardian news (author unknown, 2002). David Riesman, retrieved on 11 Dec 2013, at http://www.theguardian.com/news/2002/may/13/guardianobituaries.socialsciences
- King, R. H. (2012). Hannah Arendt and American loneliness. Springer, Science & Business Media B.V. 50th Anniversary Issue: Past, Present, Future.
- Lau, G. (2012). From China to Hong Kong: A Reflection on the Impact of the Educational Reform in the Deweyan Perspective on Early Childhood Education in the Land of the Dragon. International Journal of Educational Reform, 21(1), 2-23.
- Lau, G. (2005). Teachers’ understanding of children’s play in the early childhood curriculum. Unpublished Doctoral thesis: University of East Anglia.
- Lau, G. & Ho, K.K. (2010). A review of the development of early childhood education and its teacher training in Hong Kong. The Journal of Quality School Education, 6, 77-88.
- Lau, G. & Ho, K.K. (2013). Pedagogy as ritual: How teachers use rituals to foster their mythical values in the early childhood classrooms? Hellenic Journal of Research in Education, 1 (1), 108-149.
- Lau, G. & Tai, Y.Y. (2014). Can young children be creative thinkers? The role of the teachers in the process. Research report submitted to Centre for Creative and Research Innovation. Hong Kong Institution of Education.
- Lau, G., Chung, L.P.E. & Chan, R. (2011). To revisit ‘scaffolding’ as a learning strategy to young children’s play in the early childhood classroom in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education.
- McKay, B. & McKay, K. (2012). The autonomous man in an other-directed world, retrieved on 24 December, 2013, at http://www.artofmanliness.com/2012/06/11/becoming-an- autonomous-man- in-an- other-directed-world/
- McClay, W. M.(2008). David Riesman and the lonely crowd. Springer Science and Business Media, LLC.
- Morris, P. & Adamson, B. (2010), Curriculum, schooling and society in Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press.
- Prawatt, R. S. & Floden, R. E. (1994). Philosophical perspective on constructivist views of learning. Educational Psychology, 29 (1), 37-48.
- Riesman, D., Glazer, N. & Denney, R. (2001). The lonely crowd: a study of the changing American character. Bew Haven and London: Yale University Press.
- Riesman, D. (1960), Forward ten years later, The lonely crowd, (xix-xx), New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
- Riesman, D. (1954). The ethics of we happy few. Individualism Reconsidered, Garden City: Doubleday Anchor.
- Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Rizzo, T. (1989). Friendship development among children in school. Norwood, NJ: Alblex.
- Saha, L. J. (2011). Sociology of education. 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook. USA. retrieved on 18-6-2015 at http://www.sagepub.com/oswmedia3e/study/chapters/handbooks/handbook11.1.pdf
- Schwartzman, H.B. (1978). The anthropology of children's play. New York: Plenum Press.
- Steffe, L.P., & Gale, J. (Eds). (1995). Constructivism in education. Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.
- Sutton-Smith B. (1997). The ambiguity of play. London: Harvard University Press.
- Wood, D.J., Bruner, J.S. & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.
- Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological process. J. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & Souberman (Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Effect of Drama Instruction Method on Students’ Turkish Verbal Skills and Speech Anxiety
Mehmet Nuri Kardaş & Raşit Koç
Manuscript Views: 124 | Manuscript Download: 105
The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of the “drama” method on students’ Turkish verbal skills and speech anxiety. Pretest-posttest experimental model with control group was utilized in the study. In the analysis of data obtained by Turkish Rhetorical Skills Scale (TRSS) and Speech Anxiety Scale (SAS), t-test statistics were used. The following results were obtained in the current study: 1. It was determined that “drama” instruction method was more successful than the instructional activities in the existing Turkish curriculum for development of Turkish rhetorical skills. 2. In minimizing students’ speech anxiety, “drama” method was found to be more successful than the instructional activities in the existing Turkish curriculum. These results demonstrated that “drama” method is an effective technique in development of students’ Turkish verbal skills and reduction of students’ speech anxiety.
Keywords: Turkish verbal skill, speech anxiety, drama
Development of Attitudes towards Mathematics Scale (ATMS) using Nigerian Data – Factor Analysis as a Determinant of Attitude Subcategories
Yusuf F. Zakariya
Manuscript Views: 69 | Manuscript Download: 102
This study was aimed at the development of an instrument for measuring students’ attitudes towards mathematics. A survey research design was adopted involving 510 students randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to determine the number of factors to be retained in the ATMS. The adequacy of the sample was confirmed by means of Bartlett’s Sphericity Test (BST), the Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index, and the matrix determinant. The BST was significant at p < 0.01 with KMO index of .93 and correlation matrix determinant of 0.00006207. The factors were extracted using principal component analysis and the components were rotated using Varimax with Kaiser Normalization and converged after 10 iterations. The final 30-item ATMS contains four attitude subcategories: perception of difficulty, feelings of anxiety towards mathematics, usefulness of mathematics, mathematics phobia and has a reliability coefficient of .91 with sufficient evidence of content and face validity.
Keywords: Attitudes, Mathematics, Scale, ATMS
Pre-Service Teachers’ Evaluation of Their Mentor Teachers, School Experiences, and Theory–Practice Relationship
Ecenaz Alemdağ & Pınar Özdemir Şimşek
Manuscript Views: 143 | Manuscript Download: 98
This case study investigated practicum experiences of pre-service teachers by focusing on their evaluation of mentor teachers, school experiences, and theory–practice relationships. Interviews were conducted with six teacher candidates, and observations in the participants’ practice schools were made. The results revealed that mentor teachers had both positive and negative qualities with respect to social support, professional support, and role-modeling mentoring functions. Moreover, pre-service teachers reported that they mostly experienced or felt difficulty in classroom management; parallel with this difficulty, their learning gains in classroom management were the highest. These teachers also emphasized that there was no relationship between theory and practice in teacher education and that developmental psychology and communication courses and those presenting teaching-related cases were effective at building readiness for the teaching profession. Based on the findings, several suggestions for future practices were proposed in the study.
Keywords: Teacher education; cooperating teacher; teaching practice; student teachers; professional development