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Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS

Michael Jessee Adkins

Manuscript Views: 298  |  Manuscript Download: 280

Abstract

Afghanistan’s public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially increased since the fall of the Taliban Regime. A resurgence of learning is happening throughout the country. Although this resurgence is welcome, it faces unique challenges. This article examines Afghanistan’s history of educational oppression, describes post-Taliban educational trends, examines modern challenges facing public education, and provides recommendations for fostering a new hope for educational attainment among the citizens of Afghanistan.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Education, Rising, Oppression, ISIS

References

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  • Mashriqi, K. (2016). Afghanistan Women Perceptions of Access to Higher Education. Journal of Research Initiatives, 2(1), 1-21.
  • Matinuddin, K. (1999). The Taliban phenomenon. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Ministry of Education, Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan. (2004, August 10). National Report on the Development of Education in Afghanistan. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE47/English/Natreps/reports/afghanistan.pdf
  • Pont, A. M. (2001). Blind chickens and social animals: Creating spaces for Afghan women’s narratives under the Taliban. Portland, OR: Mercy Corps.
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  • Shayan, Z. (2015). Gender Inequality in Education in Afghanistan: Access and Barriers. Open Journal of Philosophy, 05(05), 277-284.
  • Skaine, R. (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
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2

Graduating from College: The Impossible Dream for Most First-Generation Students

Joseph Sanacore & Anthony Palumbo

Manuscript Views: 341  |  Manuscript Download: 188

Abstract

Some colleges engage in unethical practices to balance their budgets, such as accepting “marginal” students who qualify for loans and government-backed financial aid but not providing these students with the services and programs they need to achieve success. Too many low-income students who are often first-generation students find themselves gamed when they meet with admissions counselors who help them to complete loan applications but neglect to explain the difference between being accepted to college and graduating from college—and the subsequent need to repay student loans. As a response to this negative scenario, 13 high-impact strategies are suggested which increase the chances of helping first-generation students to achieve success and to graduate in a timely fashion.

Keywords: First-Generation Students, Graduation Rates, High-Impact Strategies, Caring

References

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  • Antonetti, J., & Garver, J. (2015). 17,000 classroom visits can’t be wrong: Strategies that engage students, promote active learning, and boost achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Best, J., & Best, E. (2014, October 2). Student-loan debt: A federal toxic asset. The Wall Street Journal, A17.
  • Brooks, D. (2004, March 30). Stressed for success. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/30/opinion/stressed-for-success.html
  • Burd, S. (2014a). Undermining Pell volume ll: How colleges’ pursuit of prestige and revenue is hurting low-income students. New America. Retrieved from www.newamerica.org
  • Burd, S. (2014b, September 18). Who pays for prestige? New America. Retrieved from http://newamerica.org/new-america/who-pays-for-prestige/ .n
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  • Sanacore, J., & Palumbo, A. (2015b, May). Let’s help first-generation students succeed. The Chronicle of Higher Education, LXI(36), A22-A23.
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3

American progressive education and the schooling of poor children: A brief history of a philosophy in practice

Rebecca Garte

Manuscript Views: 140  |  Manuscript Download: 135

Abstract

This paper provides a historical analysis of the past century of progressive education, within the general socio-political context of schooling within the US. The purpose of this review is to create a social, historical and philosophical context for understanding the current narrative of progressive education that exists in educational policy discussions today. Major scholarly works related to progressive education are situated within the political climate of the times of their publication. Over the course of this discussion an argument is presented that shows how progressive education has been related to the education and emancipation of disadvantaged children at different points according to the societal emphasis of the time. The final section of the paper proposes a radical form of emancipatory teaching that requires a wide range of abilities among teachers and is matched to elements of the moments in history when progressive education was most effective for poor children.

Keywords: Inexpert raters, generalizability theory, variability of ratings, writing assessment

References

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4

An Art Educator’s Journey of Becoming a Researcher: A Self-Reflective Auto-Ethnography of Identity Construction and Personal Growth

Martina Riedler

Manuscript Views: 197  |  Manuscript Download: 103

Abstract

In this self-reflective auto-ethnographic research, the author shares her experiences of introspection, change and professional growth as an art educator in an international context. Auto-ethnography is an approach to qualitative inquiry in which the researcher employs self-reflection to explore her personal experiences and connect these auto-biographical experiences to wider socio-cultural and political issues in society. This study recollects stories of the author’s personal journey as an Austrian art educator in the United States from a critical pedagogy perspective. Thereby, these stories present personalized narratives of moments of vulnerability, and the challenges of transforming traditional understandings of research and teaching into critical and participatory art pedagogies and practices. This self-reflective approach provides the author an opportunity to speak from the inside out as a researcher and educator having experienced a deeper understanding of “self” and to explore the changes that taken place in her activities along her journey of challenging the status quo in teaching and doing research.

Keywords: Auto-ethnography, identity construction, self-reflection, art education, critical pedagogy, participatory art

References

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5

The determinants of the types of selves in relation to foreign language teachers

Mehmet Demirezen

Manuscript Views: 112  |  Manuscript Download: 97

Abstract

In the field of Modern Higher Education, the background of teachers as native or non-native speakers of the language they teach is of major concern in the field of teacher education. First things first, in teacher education each teacher has an ideal self of her or his own as non-native English-speaking teachers of English, as a second or foreign language, or English as an additional language. Teachers perceive differences between their teaching [styles/approaches] and how this perception influences the teaching behavior and attitudes of the non-native speaking teachers matters a lot. The question is: Should they develop and enhance rather than merely maintain in a static self their proficiency level? This question is also related with the self of the foreign language teacher. A foreign language teacher should never say this: “As a non-native teacher, I can never truly master the target language.” Conversely, a non-native foreign language teacher should not articulate the following statement, which is contrary to professional self: “I have near-native proficiency, but I can’t aspire to mastery of the language.”All of this boils down to mean that the teacher has weak professional self which indicates the immatured self-fulfillment in efficiency in the target language.

Keywords: Determinant, Ideal Self, Ought-To Self, Feared Teacher Self, Professional Self

References

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6

Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: insight from David Riesman

LAU Grace & HO Kwok Keung

Manuscript Views: 143  |  Manuscript Download: 91

Abstract

This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different educational modes following the change of time. The other theme relates the social aspect of young children in school on the issue of ‘loneliness’ and ‘friendship’. These aspects would then be exemplified and studied through the inspirational writings of David Riesman for identifying the cause of their loneliness under the sociological lens. A corresponding mode of curriculum and pedagogic practices had been identified with the different types of personalities mentioned in Riesman’s book for the readers to reflect on.

Keywords: Sociology of Education, Early Childhood Education, David Riesman, Curriculum and Pedagogic practices, Hong Kong.

References

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7

Study of the Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Turkish Students According to Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012

Cem Oktay Güzelleri, Mehmet Taha Eser & Gökhan Aksu

Manuscript Views: 223  |  Manuscript Download: 89

Abstract

This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation for mathematics exams, completing homework on time, interest in mathematics, enjoying mathematics and enjoying reading about mathematics were used as independent variables. The studysample consisted of 4478 students participating in PISA 2012. Probit regression analysis was used to analyse the data. According to the findings, it was determined that there was a positive interaction between the dependent variable and all the independent variables except regularly completing homeworkand that the correct classification ratio of the model was 58 (44%).

Keywords: Program for International Student Assessment(PISA), Mathematics achievement, Probit regression

References

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  • Anıl, D. (2009). Uluslararası Öğrenci Başarılarını Değerlendirme Programı (PISA)’nda Türkiye’deki öğrencilerin fen bilimleri başarılarını etkileyen faktörler. Eğitim ve Bilim, 34(152), 87–100.
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  • Çam, A. (2014). 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin PISA matematik testi başarı düzeylerinin bazı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çanakkale.
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  • Çiftçi, A. (2006). According to mathematics subtest results of PISA 2003 investigation of some factors' effect on student achievement in Turkey. Unpublished masters thesis. Ankara: Hacettepe University.
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  • Özer, Y. & Özberk, E. H. (2011). PISA 2009:Türk öğrencilerin okuma becerileri, fen ve matematik okuryazarlığının bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. 20. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı. Burdur.
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8

Educational progression in Ghana: Gender and spatial variations in longitudinal trajectories of Junior High School Completion rate

David Ansong & Mustapha Alhassan

Manuscript Views: 118  |  Manuscript Download: 87

Abstract

Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child’s educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in school, with very little investment or commitment paid toward ensuring that they graduate or complete junior high school. Part of the problem is that there is little to no research on the challenges that children, especially girls, face in completing school. This study aims to bring school completion trends and related challenges to the forefront of research and policy discourse. Thus, the study uses multilevel growth curve modeling, spatial hot spot analysis, and school completion data (from 2009 through 2013) to offer longitudinal insights into (a) the scale and trajectories of junior high school completion in Ghana, and (b) the gender and spatial nuances in the trends. Findings suggest that the completion rate is steadily improving but still low. Findings also reveal unequivocal gender and spatial disparities in the completion rate and the rate’s trajectories, although the spatial inequalities between northern and southern Ghana are more severe compared to the gender inequalities. Suggestions for how Ghana’s government and its development partners can bridge the gender and spatial gaps are discussed.

Keywords: school completion; gender inequality; spatial disparity; multilevel growth curve modeling; spatial hot spot analysis; Ghana

References

  • Ackah, C.; Acquah, A.; Turkson, F.; & Adjasi, C. (2014). Education, skill, and earnings: Further evidence from Ghana (WIDER Working Paper No. 2014/073). Helsinki, Finland: UNU-WIDER
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9

Effect of Drama Instruction Method on Students’ Turkish Verbal Skills and Speech Anxiety

Mehmet Nuri Kardaş & Raşit Koç

Manuscript Views: 106  |  Manuscript Download: 84

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of the “drama” method on students’ Turkish verbal skills and speech anxiety. Pretest-posttest experimental model with control group was utilized in the study. In the analysis of data obtained by Turkish Rhetorical Skills Scale (TRSS) and Speech Anxiety Scale (SAS), t-test statistics were used. The following results were obtained in the current study: 1. It was determined that “drama” instruction method was more successful than the instructional activities in the existing Turkish curriculum for development of Turkish rhetorical skills. 2. In minimizing students’ speech anxiety, “drama” method was found to be more successful than the instructional activities in the existing Turkish curriculum. These results demonstrated that “drama” method is an effective technique in development of students’ Turkish verbal skills and reduction of students’ speech anxiety.

Keywords: Turkish verbal skill, speech anxiety, drama

References

10

A new rendition of an old classic: The young writers program as a writing workshop

Laura Magalas & Thomas G. Ryan

Manuscript Views: 149  |  Manuscript Download: 77

Abstract

The Young Writers Program (YWP) is the latest writing workshop to be developed for the classroom. It challenges students to choose a topic and write a novel-length piece based on that topic, without worrying about spelling or grammar. While the foundation of this philosophy is solid, the support and structure of the Young Writers Program website does not make up for the lack of structure and routine that is instrumental to the implementation and success of other writing workshops. Until it creates a framework that teachers can implement in their classroom, the Young Writers Program has very little direction and very few benefits when compared to other, more successful, writing workshops.

Keywords: Writing, elementary, communication

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