Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS
Michael Jessee Adkins
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Afghanistan’s public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially increased since the fall of the Taliban Regime. A resurgence of learning is happening throughout the country. Although this resurgence is welcome, it faces unique challenges. This article examines Afghanistan’s history of educational oppression, describes post-Taliban educational trends, examines modern challenges facing public education, and provides recommendations for fostering a new hope for educational attainment among the citizens of Afghanistan.
Keywords: Afghanistan, Education, Rising, Oppression, ISIS
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Graduating from College: The Impossible Dream for Most First-Generation Students
Joseph Sanacore & Anthony Palumbo
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Some colleges engage in unethical practices to balance their budgets, such as accepting “marginal” students who qualify for loans and government-backed financial aid but not providing these students with the services and programs they need to achieve success. Too many low-income students who are often first-generation students find themselves gamed when they meet with admissions counselors who help them to complete loan applications but neglect to explain the difference between being accepted to college and graduating from college—and the subsequent need to repay student loans. As a response to this negative scenario, 13 high-impact strategies are suggested which increase the chances of helping first-generation students to achieve success and to graduate in a timely fashion.
Keywords: First-Generation Students, Graduation Rates, High-Impact Strategies, Caring
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American progressive education and the schooling of poor children: A brief history of a philosophy in practice
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This paper provides a historical analysis of the past century of progressive education, within the general socio-political context of schooling within the US. The purpose of this review is to create a social, historical and philosophical context for understanding the current narrative of progressive education that exists in educational policy discussions today. Major scholarly works related to progressive education are situated within the political climate of the times of their publication. Over the course of this discussion an argument is presented that shows how progressive education has been related to the education and emancipation of disadvantaged children at different points according to the societal emphasis of the time. The final section of the paper proposes a radical form of emancipatory teaching that requires a wide range of abilities among teachers and is matched to elements of the moments in history when progressive education was most effective for poor children.
Keywords: Inexpert raters, generalizability theory, variability of ratings, writing assessment
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The determinants of the types of selves in relation to foreign language teachers
Manuscript Views: 139 | Manuscript Download: 145
In the field of Modern Higher Education, the background of teachers as native or non-native speakers of the language they teach is of major concern in the field of teacher education. First things first, in teacher education each teacher has an ideal self of her or his own as non-native English-speaking teachers of English, as a second or foreign language, or English as an additional language. Teachers perceive differences between their teaching [styles/approaches] and how this perception influences the teaching behavior and attitudes of the non-native speaking teachers matters a lot. The question is: Should they develop and enhance rather than merely maintain in a static self their proficiency level? This question is also related with the self of the foreign language teacher. A foreign language teacher should never say this: “As a non-native teacher, I can never truly master the target language.” Conversely, a non-native foreign language teacher should not articulate the following statement, which is contrary to professional self: “I have near-native proficiency, but I can’t aspire to mastery of the language.”All of this boils down to mean that the teacher has weak professional self which indicates the immatured self-fulfillment in efficiency in the target language.
Keywords: Determinant, Ideal Self, Ought-To Self, Feared Teacher Self, Professional Self
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Study of the Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Turkish Students According to Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012
Cem Oktay Güzelleri, Mehmet Taha Eser & Gökhan Aksu
Manuscript Views: 312 | Manuscript Download: 137
This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation for mathematics exams, completing homework on time, interest in mathematics, enjoying mathematics and enjoying reading about mathematics were used as independent variables. The studysample consisted of 4478 students participating in PISA 2012. Probit regression analysis was used to analyse the data. According to the findings, it was determined that there was a positive interaction between the dependent variable and all the independent variables except regularly completing homeworkand that the correct classification ratio of the model was 58 (44%).
Keywords: Program for International Student Assessment(PISA), Mathematics achievement, Probit regression
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An Art Educator’s Journey of Becoming a Researcher: A Self-Reflective Auto-Ethnography of Identity Construction and Personal Growth
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In this self-reflective auto-ethnographic research, the author shares her experiences of introspection, change and professional growth as an art educator in an international context. Auto-ethnography is an approach to qualitative inquiry in which the researcher employs self-reflection to explore her personal experiences and connect these auto-biographical experiences to wider socio-cultural and political issues in society. This study recollects stories of the author’s personal journey as an Austrian art educator in the United States from a critical pedagogy perspective. Thereby, these stories present personalized narratives of moments of vulnerability, and the challenges of transforming traditional understandings of research and teaching into critical and participatory art pedagogies and practices. This self-reflective approach provides the author an opportunity to speak from the inside out as a researcher and educator having experienced a deeper understanding of “self” and to explore the changes that taken place in her activities along her journey of challenging the status quo in teaching and doing research.
Keywords: Auto-ethnography, identity construction, self-reflection, art education, critical pedagogy, participatory art
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High School Students’ Gender Role Perceptions Regarding Various Professions
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This survey study aims to determine the gender role perceptions of high school students regarding several professions. 724 female (56.9%) and 548 male (43.1%) formed the sample of a total of 1272 high school students. The “Gender Role Perceptions regarding Various Professions Questionnaire” was used to determine the gender role perceptions of high school students based on various professions. The findings demonstrated that high school students perceived the professions of teacher, doctor, lawyer, psychologist, and dentist suitable for both male and female gender equally (neutral occupations). High school students perceived the professions of district governor (public administration), military officer, policeman, engineer, judge, prosecutor and architect as predominantly male occupations. On the other hand, students perceived the professions of nurse and dietician as mainly female occupations. The study findings demonstrated that high school students classify various professions as strictly male or female professions. These results demonstrated the significance of school psychological counselors who provide counseling services to students during the career selection process to raise awareness of the students by organizing group guidance activities on gender role perceptions and possible outcomes of various professions.
Keywords: gender role perception, professions, choice of profession, high school students
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Development of Attitudes towards Mathematics Scale (ATMS) using Nigerian Data – Factor Analysis as a Determinant of Attitude Subcategories
Yusuf F. Zakariya
Manuscript Views: 93 | Manuscript Download: 120
This study was aimed at the development of an instrument for measuring students’ attitudes towards mathematics. A survey research design was adopted involving 510 students randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to determine the number of factors to be retained in the ATMS. The adequacy of the sample was confirmed by means of Bartlett’s Sphericity Test (BST), the Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index, and the matrix determinant. The BST was significant at p < 0.01 with KMO index of .93 and correlation matrix determinant of 0.00006207. The factors were extracted using principal component analysis and the components were rotated using Varimax with Kaiser Normalization and converged after 10 iterations. The final 30-item ATMS contains four attitude subcategories: perception of difficulty, feelings of anxiety towards mathematics, usefulness of mathematics, mathematics phobia and has a reliability coefficient of .91 with sufficient evidence of content and face validity.
Keywords: Attitudes, Mathematics, Scale, ATMS
Pre-Service Teachers’ Evaluation of Their Mentor Teachers, School Experiences, and Theory–Practice Relationship
Ecenaz Alemdağ & Pınar Özdemir Şimşek
Manuscript Views: 161 | Manuscript Download: 117
This case study investigated practicum experiences of pre-service teachers by focusing on their evaluation of mentor teachers, school experiences, and theory–practice relationships. Interviews were conducted with six teacher candidates, and observations in the participants’ practice schools were made. The results revealed that mentor teachers had both positive and negative qualities with respect to social support, professional support, and role-modeling mentoring functions. Moreover, pre-service teachers reported that they mostly experienced or felt difficulty in classroom management; parallel with this difficulty, their learning gains in classroom management were the highest. These teachers also emphasized that there was no relationship between theory and practice in teacher education and that developmental psychology and communication courses and those presenting teaching-related cases were effective at building readiness for the teaching profession. Based on the findings, several suggestions for future practices were proposed in the study.
Keywords: Teacher education; cooperating teacher; teaching practice; student teachers; professional development
Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: insight from David Riesman
LAU Grace & HO Kwok Keung
Manuscript Views: 178 | Manuscript Download: 114
This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different educational modes following the change of time. The other theme relates the social aspect of young children in school on the issue of ‘loneliness’ and ‘friendship’. These aspects would then be exemplified and studied through the inspirational writings of David Riesman for identifying the cause of their loneliness under the sociological lens. A corresponding mode of curriculum and pedagogic practices had been identified with the different types of personalities mentioned in Riesman’s book for the readers to reflect on.
Keywords: Sociology of Education, Early Childhood Education, David Riesman, Curriculum and Pedagogic practices, Hong Kong.
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