PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 15 Issue 2 (April 2019)

Original articles

Assessing University Students' Physical Activity Levels in Terms of Different Variables

Mehmet Bülent Asma & Yıldırım Gökhan Gencer

pp. 1 - 8   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.1


This study aimed at assessing physical activity levels of university students who studied at Van Yüzüncü Yıl University in terms of different variables. 20 students who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) (10 female students and 10 male students) and 20 students who studied at Education Faculty (EF) (10 female students and 10 male students) participated in the study voluntarily. The steps took during the day were measured by bio-electric impedance method and data about their nutrition, sleep, residence and internet use have been collected via information form and then this information was evaluated. Whether or not data followed a normal distribution was assessed and Non-Parametric Mann Whitney U Test was used for assessments. According to findings; average number of students’ daily steps was 11063±2198 in male students while it was 10308±1829 in female students. There was no significant difference in terms of academic schools where the students attended (p>0.05) whereas there were significant differences in terms of sex variable among male students of SPES and EF as compared to female students in the parameters of BMI, body fat ratio and residence place (p<0.05). Besides, there were also significant differences in the number of weekly steps among students of both schools in terms of doing sports variable (p<0.05). However; no statistically significant differences were found in terms of students’ internet use, daily sleep length, transportation to schools and number of weekly total steps (p<0.05). As a result, it was noted that physical activity levels of the female and male students were “active” according to literature criteria and average number of daily steps of those students who regularly did sports was high as expected

Keywords: Physical activity, number of average steps, university students

The Pre-Service Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions about Syrian Asylum Seekers' Children

Gamze Tezcan

pp. 9 - 29   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.2


The aim of this study is to explore the metaphorical perceptions of pre-service teachers about Syrian asylum seekers’ children.  A metaphor analysis method was conducted through 160 pre-service teachers during the spring semester of the 2017-2018 academic year.  Data was collected by a metaphor analysis form. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis were conducted both. Inductive content analysis was done to derive conceptual categories from the metaphors and the frequencies and percentages of participants who represent each metaphor and each category were calculated. The findings show that the most of the pre-service teachers perceive Syrian asylum seekers’ children as traumatized and helpless and need support of others. In addition, there is a category which qualifies Syrian asylum seekers’ children as dangerous. Different form all other categories, only the ‘Children’ category underlines the equity of them with the other children.

Keywords: Asylum seekers’ children, pre-service teachers, metaphorical perceptions

Investigation of the Mediator Variable Effect Using BK, Sobel and Bootstrap Methods (Mathematical Literacy Case)

Selda Örs Özdil & Ömer Kutlu

pp. 30 - 43   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.3


This study aimed to compare different mediation analysis methods (BK, Sobel, and bootstrapping) based on single mediation models for groups of different sizes. For this purpose, the PISA 2012 data for Turkey were used. In order to compare the mediation analysis methods, 4,848 students from Turkey that participated in PISA 2012 were divided into sample groups of 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 individuals. Among the mediation analysis methods discussed within the scope of the research, the BK method was implemented assisted by a regression analysis while for the remaining two methods, SPSS macros were utilized. For the analysis, syntax files were created to be run on SPSS. The results of the analysis of single mediation models revealed that the mathematics anxiety variable mediated the relationship between classroom climate and mathematical literacy. According to the analyses based on all three methods, it was observed that the standard error value increased as the sample group became smaller. Although the standard errors of the Sobel test and bootstrap method were close to each other in large study groups, the former produced less erroneous results in large samples whereas the latter yielded more reliable results in smaller samples.

Keywords: Mediator variable, mediation effect, Sobel test, bootstrap, BK method, PISA

Analysis of Scientific Studies on Item Response Theory by Bibliometric Analysis Method

Gökhan Aksu & Cem Oktay Güzeller

pp. 44 - 64   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.4


The purpose of this study is to analyze the studies, which include Item Response Theory among the keywords, available in the Web of Science database between 1980-2018 through bibliometric analysis method. A total of 1,367 academic works has been analyzed. The authors, journals and countries having the highest number of studies in the field and their interrelations on the network in terms of collaboration have been determined through common citation analysis performed using Citespace II software. In addition, a word analysis was also conducted to determine most frequently used concepts in the field. As a result of the study it was found that the authors that have made the biggest contribution to the field are De Ayala, Embretson, Reckase, Reise and Chalmers; in addition, the countries making the biggest contribution are respectively US, Netherland, Canada, Spain and China. The number of citations that US got, which is the country that received the highest number of citations with 687 citations, is 7 times higher than Netherland, which is the second most cited country. Moreover, it was found that the journals that were mostly cited are respectively Psychometrika, Appl Psych Measurement, Item Response Theory, J Edu Measurement and Educ Psychol Measurement. As a result of the word analysis based on most repeated words, which was performed for the purpose of determining most popular subjects on the field, it was found that most frequently used words are item response theory, classical test theory, model, validation, reliability, validity and Rasch model

Keywords: Item Response Theory, Citespace II, Bibliometric Analysis, Cite, Analysis

An Analysis of the Relationship Between the General Self-efficacy Perceptions of Teachers and Their Political Skill Levels

Fatih Bozbayındır & Sedat Alev

pp. 65 - 77   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.5


The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the general self-efficacy perceptions of teachers and their political skill levels. The relational screening model method was used for this study. Data was collected from 358 teachers serving at primary and secondary schools in the city of Gaziantep in the 2017-2018 academic year. The research’s data was collected through the "General Self-Efficacy Scale" and the "Political Skill Inventory". The confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of the scales used in the study with the AMOS software. This was followed by descriptive statistics and correlation, and regression analyses with the SPSS program. Research findings indicate that teachers' general self-efficacy perceptions, as well as the interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity sub-dimensions of political skills are at a high level, while their social astuteness and networking abilities are at a medium level. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found that the general self-efficacy had a significant positive relationship with the networking ability, apparent sincerity, social astuteness and interpersonal influence sub-dimensions of political skills. According to the stepwise multiple regression analysis results, the general self-efficacy predicts all the sub-dimensions of the political skills in a significant and positive manner. It can be suggested that teachers with high general self-efficacy perceptions have higher levels of political skills and are more likely to reach their goals by using their political skills with the people around them in the school environment.

Keywords: General self-efficacy, political skills, teacher, school

Self-leadership Strategies as the Predictor of Self-esteem and Life Satisfaction in University Students

Ersin Uzman & İlknur Maya

pp. 78 - 90   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.6


Self-leadership is human resource that can be developed. It is self-influence through behavioral and cognitive strategies and can influence both self-esteem and life satisfaction. The present study aims to determine whether and to what degree self-leadership strategies used by university students predict their self-esteem and life satisfaction. The study, using relational survey model and quantitative paradigm, was conducted with 360 university students. The findings indicated that there were positive and significant correlations between the use of self-leadership strategies (behavior-focused strategies and constructive thought strategies) and self-esteem and life satisfaction. Of the strategies, behavior-focused strategies were found to be the strongest predictor of university students’ self-esteem and life satisfaction.

Keywords: Self-leadership strategies • Self-esteem • Life satisfaction

The Investigation of the Relationship between University Students' Leisure and Life Satisfaction Levels

Murat Özmaden

pp. 91 - 103   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.7


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction levels of university students and to determine whether these parameters differ in terms of various variables. In the study, the Leisure Satisfaction Scale, which was developed by Beard and Ragheb (1980) and adapted to Turkish by Gökçe and Orhan (2011) was applied to determine the participants' leisure satisfaction levels and Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Diener et al. (1985) and adapted to Turkish by Köker (1991) was used to measure the life satisfaction levels of the participants. The convenience sampling method was chosen for sampling and face-to-face method was used for data collection. SPSS package program was used for analysis of obtained data. Pearson Correlation, Regression, and Multivariate variance analysis were used for data showing normal distribution according to Skewness-Kurtosis values. Totally, 1418 participants [651 males (45.9%) and 767 females (54.1%)] participated in the research voluntarily. According to the findings of current research, it was determined that there was a positive correlation between life satisfaction and all sub-scales of leisure satisfaction. When MANOVA results were examined according to gender, it was found that there was a significant difference in all sub-scales of leisure satisfaction scale. As a result; leisure satisfaction sub-scales (aesthetic and physical) have a positive impact on life satisfaction.

Keywords: Leisure Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, University Student

Analyze of the Science and Technology Course TEOG Questions based on the Revised Bloom Taxonomy and their Relation between the Learning Outcomes of the Curriculum

Seraceddin Levent Zorluoğlu, Kübra Elif Bağrıyanık & Ayşe Şahintürk

pp. 104 - 117   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.8


Students who are getting education in our country are subject to various exams in order to be placed in a higher education. Since 2013-2014 academic year, Transition from Primary Education to Secondary Education (TEOG) exam has started to be applied for secondary education. TEOG exam questions are prepared in such a way to include teaching program achievements/learning outcomes published by the Ministry of National Education. In this study, the relations between the levels of the TEOG exam science and technology course questions and the 8th class achievements of the Science and Technology course curriculum in the renewed Bloom taxonomy were examined. In the research, data were subjected to descriptive analysis using the document analysis method. A total of 120 Science and Technology questions of the TEOG exams held between 2013 and 2016 were included in the study but 118 of the questions were analyzed since two of the questions were canceled. At the end of the research, it was determined that 58 questions from the Science and Technology course of Semester I included in the TEOG exam were the questions related to the 31 learning outcomes of the total of 34 outcomes included in the examination program. It was observed that 60 questions from the Science and Technology course of Semester II were related to the 42 learning outcomes of the total of 96 outcomes included in the program. In addition, it was also determined that there was no question in TEOG related to some of the course units.

Keywords: TEOG, Science and Technology Curriculum, Revised Bloom Taxonomy, learning outcome.

The Impact of Biography-based Values Education on 4th Grade Elementary School Students' Attitudes towards Tolerance Value

Halil Taş & Muhammet Baki Minaz

pp. 118 - 139   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.9


This study seeks to determine the impact of biography-based values education on 4th grade elementary school students’ attitudes towards tolerance value. Within the study, an experimental method with pre-test and post-test control group was used to find out the difference between attitudes towards tolerance value adopted by the students of the experimental group in which biography-based values education was practised and by the students of the control group in which it was not practised.In addition, in this study, which includes both quantitative and qualitative techniques, quantitative data were collected through tolerance attitude scale while qualitative data were collected through interview forms. All data collection tools were developed by researchers of the study. In this study, quantitative data were analysed through arithmetic average, frequency, independent samples t-test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test, while descriptive analysis approach was given preference in the analysis of qualitative data. In this study, researchers drew upon biographies of Prophet Muhammad, Atatürk, Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Hacı Bektaş Veli, Mevlâna and Yunus Emre. These biographies were presented with the tolerance value and in a manner and a format close to biographical fiction that brings in sub dimensions of the tolerance value including respect, toleration, harmony, flexibility, peace, equality, forgiveness, prejudice, modesty and understanding. In this study, it was determined that after the biography-based values education practice while there was a significant difference in favour of the experimental group between attitude points towards students’ tolerance value, there was no significant difference between attitude points of students depending on variables of gender, education and income level of parents. It was concluded from interviews made with teachers, parents and students that the biography-based values education turned out to be a successful practice that concretized the teaching process, catalysed the learning of values, made the teaching environment enjoyable and positively affected students’ attitudes towards tolerance values.

Keywords: Biography, Value, Values Education, Attitude, Tolerance

Professional Knowledge Courses in Teacher Education: Lecturer and Student Views (The Case of Gazi Education Faculty)

Gülgün Bangir Alpan & Gürcü Koç-Erdamar

pp. 140 - 156   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.10


Professional knowledge courses (PKC) at education faculties are designed to educate high quality teachers. This study aims to examine the views of education faculty lecturers, graduates and senior year students about the place and implementation of PKC in teacher education. The study group of the qualitative study included lecturers (20), senior year (22) and graduate (12) students who agreed to take part in the study. Data were collected by using semi structured interview forms. Focus group interviews of 30-45 minutes were held with individual lecturers and graduates, and with groups of 3-5 senior year students. For data analysis, a list of codes was made. Relavant codes were brought together for thematic coding. Analyses of lecturer and student views on PKC revealed the following themes: General perceptions, content, implementation, quality of lecturers, measurement and evaluation in PKC, teaching practice, educational environments, educational system - policies, and recommendations. The study concludes with teacher education recommendations based on the findings.

Keywords: Teacher education, Professional knowledge for teachers, Lecturer views, Teacher candidate views

Describing and comparing pragmatic language skills ofTurkish students with typical development and inclusive education students withmild intellectual disability

Özlem Diken

pp. 157 - 166   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.11


The purpose of this study is to describe and compare pragmatic language skills of Turkish students with typical development and inclusive education students with mild intellectual disability. Participants included 152 primary school students  (75 students were students with typical development-STD, and 77 students were inclusive education students with mild intellectual disability-IES) aged between 5 and 12. Data were collected via Turkish version of Pragmatic Language Skills Inventory (TV-PLSI, Alev, Diken, Ardıç, Diken, Şekercioğlu and Gilliam, 2014). Results indicated that out of 75 students with typical development (STD), 58 (77,4 %) had average or above average pragmatic language skills whereas out of 77 inclusive education students (IES), only 17 (22,1 %) showed average or above average pragmatic language skills. More specifically, 60 (77,9) IES had below average, poor and very poor pragmatic language skills. Results on comparisons of two groups also revealed that students with typical development showed higher pragmatic language skills than inclusive education students with mild intellectual disability on total score and three subtest scores of the TV-PLSI. Suggestions were provided.

Keywords: Pragmatic language skills, Turkish students with intellectual disabilities, inclusion, typical students.

The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organization

Jenny E. Grigoropoulos

pp. 167 - 175   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.189.12


Business ethics is a highly discussed and debated subject in today’s corporate and business world, as well as in educational and academic circles. There are certain parameters, which influence the extensive level and degree to which ethics has been analyzed by scholars and researchers in recent years, such as globalization, technology, intangible assets, talent management. Meanwhile, organizations that are inclined in performing according to ethical standards, morals, and values, have recognized the importance and significance that ethical procedures and policies are communicated and practiced throughout the entire organization, while at the same time becoming a priority for the administration of the organization. Organizational and educational leadership is responsible for practices such as creating the foundations for the resourceful and ethical performance of the business. It is one of the most powerful and important aspects of human activities in organizations. Given that leaders are the most influential body in any institution greatly impacting the organizational culture, they are the ones who ought to promote and model principles and values in accordance to the objectives, mission, and vision shared with employees. Although ethos as a principle and value was first discussed in the ancient Greek philosophic circles, where it was characterizing the virtuous and moral beliefs, attitudes, and acts, the importance of the principle of ethical behavior had not been “apparent” until recent years that individuals and organizations have been researching to find ways that ethical behavior can be integrated into corporate practices. Moreover, ethics and the notion of ethical behavior and value systems in the organizational setting have become an organizational precedence in the 21stcentury.  While leaders have numerous external factors, which present opportunities and threats, such as keeping up with the technology advancements, globalization’s outcomes, threats of the competition, they also have to keep up with internal tasks and practices such as the alignment of mission, vision with the organizational culture, the strategies designed and the goals pursued for their own organization. Although the role of a leader is a complex and multifaceted one, he/she must also integrate ethical practices in their organizations’ policies.

Keywords: Culture, ethics, leadership, organization