PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 15 Issue 4 (August 2019)

Original articles

Explanatory Strategies of Preservice Mathematics Teachers about Divisibility by Zero

Nejla Gürefe & Gülfem Sarpkaya Aktaş

pp. 1 - 15   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.1


In this study, it was aimed to reveal the explanatory strategies that preservice teachers use in the process of explaining the concept of divisibility by zero. It was investigated how the concept of divisibility by zero, which can be used in expressing the case where the denominator is present in the definition of important concepts of the secondary school curriculum such as the fraction and rational number, is defined and explained. A scale consisting of three open-ended questions, in which it was questioned what the definition of the concept of divisibility by zero is and how this concept can be explained to the secondary school/high school student, was used as a data collection instrument. The data were collected through this scale and the content analysis method was adopted in the data analysis. As a result of the analyses made, it was determined that the preservice teachers use the rule strategy the most on the subject of divisibility by zero.

Keywords: Zero number; strategies; preservice teachers

An Evaluation on the Education of Turkish Language in Australia

Yasemin Uzun

pp. 16 - 26   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.2


The level and rate of learning the mother tongue of individuals whose mother tongue is different from the language of the society they live is not the same compared to people who learn their mother tongue in their homeland.  Turkish people who live in abroad, have to study more in order to learn Turkish compared to people in Turkey. The language students learn who live in abroad and the language they use in their homes may negatively affect either their success in their lessons or the relationships they have with people who speak the same mother tongue. It is expected from students who live in abroad to be academically successful and build healthy relationships and to learn their mother tongue as well as the language they are educated in order to sustain their culture. Providing opportunity to learn their mother tongue in schools they receive education live positively affects their success. It is extremely important especially in multi-cultured societies. Countries which adopt multi-culturalism also give importance to mother tongue education. Australia, which is a multi-cultured country, provides opportunity for different societies to learn their mother tongue. Certain hours in schools is spared for migrants to learn their mother tongue. Australia prepared and executed Turkish curriculum in 2005.  In this paper, Turkish curriculum being applied in the state of Victoria in Australia was evaluated and obtained data were compared in accordance with the purpose, approach and grammar that is applied in Turkey. On the basis of this purpose, the research was conducted with document analysis among qualitative research methods. As a result, it was concluded that Turkish curriculum in Australia is prepared in order to develop metacognitive skills and corresponds to constructivist approach that is being applied in Turkey since 2005.

Keywords: Mother tongue education, Turkish education, Australia, Turkish curriculum, multi-culturalism

The Effect of Self-Regulation Based Strategic Reading Education on Comprehension, Motivation, and Self-Regulation Skills

Tuncay Türkben

pp. 27 - 46   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.3


The changes occurred in science and technology affect the content of education directly. In alignment with this change, the upbringing of students from an early age to be able to adapt and improve in alignment with the changing life conditions, to take learning responsibilities, to solve problems, to be able to think critically, to be entrepreneurial and to have communication skills is directly realted to models and methods used in their learning environments. With self-regulated education that emerged in alignment with this perspective, students follow a path that is cognitively, motivationally and behaviorally active during their education. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of self-regulation based strategic reading on the comprehension, reading motivation and self-regulation skills of 5th grade students. The study was conducted in two middle schools that are in the middle level socioeconomically in the city of Aksaray. An experimental model with pre-test and post-test control group was used in the study. Paired groups were assigned to expeiment and control groups randomly in alignment with the research design. In the test group, a program geared towards improving self-regulation based reading skills was used while the current education program is used in the control group. Reading comprehension scale, motivation and learning strategies scale, reading motivation scale, and reading strategies scale were used as data collection instruments. The findings showed that self-regulation based strategic reading education has an effect on reading comprehension, motivation and self-regulation skills.

Keywords: Self-regulation based learning, reading comprehension, motivation, self-regulation skills, effect

An Investigation into Teacher Burnout in Relatıon To Some Varibles

Mehmet Ali Akın

pp. 47 - 65   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.4


In organizations with intense human relations, due to reasons such as the business environment, the intensity of competition and the high number of expectations, employees could be expected to experience such negativeness as mental and emotional tiredness, anxiety, stress, and low performance. In other words, due to the reasons listed above, employees may experience a sense of burnout. Teaching is one of the professions in which intense relationships and related burnout are experienced. Therefore, research aims to describe the phenomenon of burnout experienced by teachers.

The aim of the study is to describe the perceptions of teachers about burnout levels. In this context, it was investigated whether there was a significant difference between teachers' perceptions of burnout levels according to gender, type of duty, branch, marital status, school type and child status.

The research is designed as mixed research (both quantitative and qualitative).  “Maslach Burnout Inventory” were used in order to collect the quantitative data of the study, and semi-structured interview form were used to collect qualitative data of the study.

The research population consists of 3478 teachers working in the central Yenişehir district of Diyarbakır province. The sample size of the quantitative dimension was 460 for the 95% confidence level and 30 for the qualitative data.

In the study, arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used in the analysis of quantitative data, and in the evaluation of variables, for F values that are significant with t-test and ANOVA, Tukey HSD test was used to determine the source of the difference. The significance level of the statistical analysis was evaluated as 0.05. In the analysis of qualitative data, direct quotations are given.

Some of the results of the research can be summarized as follows:

1. Participant perceptions of the sub-dimensions of burnout according to gender variable are negative. Whereas in some studies, a significant difference was found between the participants' perceptions, there was no significant difference in other studies.


2. According to the type of task, sometimes teachers and sometimes managers have more burnout than the other.

3. There was no significant difference between teachers' perceptions according to the branch variable. However, a significant difference was found between teachers' perceptions of burnout in some sub-dimensions.

4. In respect to the marital status variable, participants' perceptions of burnout differed according to the sub-dimensions of burnout.

5. In respect to the school type variable, the participants' perceptions of burnout differed according to the sub-dimensions of burnout.

6. According to the child status variable, the participants' perceptions of burnout differed depending on whether they have children or not.

According to gender, type of duty, branch, marital status, school type, and child status variables, both quantitative and qualitative researches can be done in the primary, secondary and high schools to determine the reasons for the burnout of teachers and their solution offers.

Keywords: Teacher, Burnout, Teacher Burnout

Investigation of the Football Fanaticism Levels of Physical Education Teachers

Kemal Kurak

pp. 66 - 72   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.5


The aim of this study is to investigate fanaticism activities and fanaticism levels of physical education teachers as football supporters. The sample of the study consists of a total of 1292 teachers, 754 males and 538 females, who were working as physical education teachers in the cities of Gaziantep, Malatya, Elazığ and Kahramanmaraş in the 2017-2018 education period. Within the scope of this study, the “Football Supporter Fanaticism Scale” (FSFS), which includes 13-items, was used. The data obtained in the data collection period were analyzed using SPSS software. The physical education teachers in the study were investigated for their fanaticism, age, gender, marital status and years of professional experience. It was determined that the participants consisted of 17.6% of fanatics, 35.8% of team supporters and 46.6% of football spectators. 

Keywords: Physical Education Teacher, Football, Fanaticism, Supporter

The Predictive Relationships between the Social Media Addiction and Social Anxiety, Loneliness, and Happiness

Önder Baltacı

pp. 73 - 82   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.6


The purpose of this study is to examine how well university students’ social anxiety, happiness and loneliness levels explain their levels of social media addiction. The research was designed as a correlational survey model. The research group consisted a total of 312 university students, 165 female (53%) and 147 male (47%), attending at a state university in Turkey during the 2017-2018 academic year. The data collected using a Personal Information Form, a Social Media Addiction Scale, a Social Anxiety Scale, the short form of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the short form of the UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire. Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression analysis were conducted in SPSS to investigate the relationship between students’ social media addiction and their social anxiety, happiness, and loneliness levels. The findings showed that there was a positive relationship between students’ social media addiction levels and their social anxiety and loneliness levels. On the other hand, there was a negative relationship between students’ social media addiction levels and their happiness levels. According to these findings, social media addiction variable significantly predicted by the social anxiety and happiness variables, but it did not significantly predicted by the loneliness variable. The findings were discussed in the light of the relevant literature and recommendations were presented.

Keywords: Social media addiction, social anxiety, loneliness, happiness

Exploring Pre-Service Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs in Primary Education

Çiğdem Şahin Taşkın

pp. 83 - 95   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203 .7


Considerable research emphasized that pre-service teachers enter teacher education programs with beliefs about teaching and learning and relate their beliefs to the experiences they gained through their previous studies. Then, their pre-existed beliefs have been shaped through the teacher education. Therefore, understanding pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs plays an important role in their professional development. The purpose of this research is to understand pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs in primary education in Turkey. Pedagogical Beliefs Scale developed by the author is used in order to understand their pedagogical beliefs. Scale development included data from 553 pre-service teachers. To understand primary pre-service teachers' pedagogical beliefs, data gathered from 310 primary pre-service teachers. Findings revealed that majority of the pre-service teachers hold constructivist beliefs. Although there is no statistically significant difference among the primary pre-service teachers regarding the year they enrolled, statistically significant difference found in favour of female pre-service teachers. Findings of this research revealed that pre-service teachers hold compatible pedagogical beliefs with the demands of the primary curriculum in Turkey.

Keywords: Pedagogical beliefs, pre-service teachers, scale development, teacher education

Opinions of Social Studies Candidate Teachers on ''Democracy and Citizenship''

Selda Şan, Nurhak Cem Dedebali & İskender Daşdemir

pp. 96 - 107   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.8


When considered the basis of social studies, it can be seen that citizenship and citizenship-related issues are of vital importance. After the industrial revolution and immigration, education was considered as a solution to keep people together healthily who have serious problems with each other and are from different cultures. Within the context of this solution, raising citizens capable of living in society was aimed and this duty was given to social studies education programs. During the time, different forms and perceptions of citizenship have emerged and expectations of countries/governments from their citizens have changed. In the course of globalization, perceptions and expectations of citizens also have been transformed. In past, raising citizens obeying the state was the aim, today the expectation is to raise citizens who can carry their states, nations and even the world to higher levels and who can criticize, explore, solve problems and develop themselves at a national and universal level. Since human beings have to live together with different cultures and nations, they are expected to respect different ones from themselves and to be loyal to democratic values with a sense of tolerance. Today, the concept of citizenship cannot be considered without democracy and values of democracy. It is also important to reveal what social studies candidate teachers understand from the combination of citizenship and democracy concepts, which have crucial place in the nature of social studies and its education. For this reason, the aim of this research is to reveal the opinions of social studies candidate teachers on democracy and citizenship. This research is carried out using a qualitative research method. Social studies candidate teachers educated at Ege University makes up the study group of this research. In the study, opinions of social studies candidate teachers were received using a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions.       


The research is carried out with 165 participants in total based on a voluntary basis. However, blank and meaningless data is eliminated and thus data of 135 participants is used in total. Data is collected with an open-ended questionnaire and is analyzed using content analysis method. In the result of the research, social studies candidate teachers defined citizenship as duties and responsibilities and they defined democracy rights-liberties and duties-responsibilities when they defined the concepts of democracy and citizenship. It can be said that according to social studies candidate teachers, democracy gives the meaning of rights and liberties to citizenship concept. They expressed a relation between two concepts and mentioned basic values/characteristics of democracy such as equality, justice, tolerance, freedom. However, results of this study demonstrate the necessity of a license program or teacher education program that handles the citizenship with a multi-dimensional and constructivist approach.    

Keywords: Social Studies candidate teachers’ opinions, democracy, citizenship

A Systematic Review of Critical Factors Regarding ICT Use in Teaching and Learning

M. Kemal Aydın & Mehmet Gürol

pp. 108 - 129   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.9


ICT use has gained currency in the realm of education for about three decades. This has led to a proliferation of ICT research studies in educational settings, which has also made it more challenging for ICT practitioners and researchers to keep up with the current trends and identify the research gaps in the literature. In regard to this, the present review intends to summarize critical factors pertinent to ICT use addressed in the reviewed papers. The paper also discusses what direction future ICT research might go. As a guideline in the current review study, the PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was employed. The review results extracted from our qualitative synthesis were presented and based on the results a generic model illustrating ICT related student, teacher and school conditions was proposed. Finally, a list of implications for future research was also provided for ICT practitioners and researchers.

Keywords: ICT use; Systematic review; ICT adoption, ICT framework

Multicultural Children Literature in Preservice Teacher Education: Responses through Literature Circles

Nergiz Kardaş İşler & Hakan Dedeoğlu

pp. 130 - 141   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.10


This study aims to analyze pre-service teachers’ opinions about children books through a literature circle (LC) approach in multicultural learning environments. The data of the present study were collected from the children literature course offered for preservice classroom teachers during the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 spring semesters at Hacettepe University. The preservice teachers (PSTs) in children iterature course read and responded to Newbery Award winning books both individually and in literature circle groups within a framework of critical literacy and reader response theories. The results of the current study revealed the deficiencies of the pre-service teachers in the process of critical reading and actualization in spite of their satisfactory interpretations of the events. In this study, the PSTs expressed their opinions for the “gaining an understanding of different perspectives on life in the world” and “the cultures of specific groups, developing the skills needed to take social action to eliminate social injustice” categories in all four children books. However, they did not share their opinons related to gain an awareness of own cultures and cultural backgrounds and obtain a recognition an understanding of global issues, learning how to reduce stereotyping, prejudice and racism within ourselves and within society” categories. This study may contribute to a variety of research fields including pre-service teacher education, multicultural education and literary studies.

Keywords: Multicultural literature, literature circles, newbery award, preservice teachers, children books.

Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model Approach for Teaching Programming Skills

Zafer Güney

pp. 142 - 156   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.11


The need for methods, techniques and approaches that we can develop high-level thinking skills in important activities increases day by day in order to achieve effective use of technology and change in information and communication technologies. In particular, the diversity, complexity of technical skills and to gain technical skills required to be learned in schools and through applications in industry is important. Teaching the programming as a technical skill during instructional design process (ID) and how effective and meaningful teaching can be taught is an important problem. Thus, instructional design models have been developed for the solution of learning problems in systemic, systematic and appropriate learning conditions and especially for the development of technical skills (van Merriënboer (1997). The instructional design model (4C/ID) activity mentioned here can be used for teaching the importance of instructional and technological stages by combining and supporting another multimedia project design, development and evaluation model. This study presents technical skills only by pointing to the future developers and designers of programming that an instructional design approach can be used to develop other programming skills. In addition, through ten steps proposed for complex learning (van Merriënboer & Kirschner 2007) and steps in achieving complex cognitive, high-level, algorithm based limited  coding, technical skills, it is to provide a new different approach to program developers, instructors and designers by planning and discussing the design of the process within a basic frame as to be in four stages (van Merriënboer & Kirschner 2007). The purpose of this study is to adapt the principles of the model for teaching technical skills by using four-component instructional design model (4C/ID) within software programming. In this study, theoretical framework for teaching complex technical skills, learning theories and problem solving in programming are given. The relationships between components of 4C/ID model presented for teaching programming skills. At the end of study, the ID model components and their applications for future programming skills were indicated.

Keywords: Instructional Design, Programming, Learning Technical Skills

An Investigation of Pre-Service Preschool Teachers' Projects Using The Many-Facet Rasch Model

Durmuş Özbaşı & Serdar Arcagök

pp. 157 - 173   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.12


The aim of this study was to evaluate project proposals prepared by pre-service preschool teachers’ using ten criteria and thus determine the awareness of pre-service preschool teachers’ toward the Research Project course. The survey method, a quantitative research type, was used for this research. The study group of the research constituted six different project proposals prepared by final year undergraduate students taking the Research Project I and Research Project II courses at the Faculty of Education, Department of Pre-school Education of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey during the academic year 2018-2019. Twelve academic members of the Faculty of Education from six different universities assessed the projects. The data collection tool used was based on the research project assessment criteria of TÜBİTAK (Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) along with the course’s learning outcomes and content, and the theoretical frame of the research topic. The results were analyzed based on the Many-Facet Rasch Model. According to the data obtained, it was found that the projects and project criteria differed in terms of consistency and generosity. It was also observed that the pre-service teachers met some of the criteria while they had difficulties with other criteria.

Keywords: Many-facet rasch analysis, pre-service preschool teachers, research projects, survey method

Investigating Differential Item Functioning in DINA Model

Seçil Ömür Sünbül

pp. 174 - 186   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.13


In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of various factors on the performance of the methods used in the determination of differential item functioning (DIF) in the DINA model included in the Cognitive Diagnosis Models. The current study is limited with Logistic Regression and Wald test methods which were used to determine the differential item functioning in DINA model. The Type I error and power rates of these methods in certain conditions were investigated to evaluate their performances. In the simulation study for the Type I error rates, four variables were manipulated: sample sizes, the number of attributes, correlations between attributes and reference group s and g parameter values. In the determination of the power rates of the methods, additionally, the variables that were manipulated in the Type I error study, DIF sizes and percentages of DIF items were manipulated, too. As a result, it was observed that especially in all cases where reference group’ s and g parameter values are low, both methods yielded a good control of Type I error rates. In addition, according to the results, it was observed that both DIF size and sample size affect the power rates of both methods.

Keywords: DINA model, differential item functioning, Wald test, logistic regression

Modeling the Relationship between Motivation, Learning Approach, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students in Turkey

Pınar Karaman, İbrahim Demirci & Atilla Özdemir

pp. 187 - 199   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.14


This study examines the structural relationship among motivation, deep learning approach, and academic achievement of middle school students in Turkey. Participants were 746  seventh grade and eighth grade students enrolled in public middle schools in Sinop and Ankara, Turkey. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) and GPA scores of participants were used in the study. Data were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling. The results of the study revealed that motivational variables are related with the use of deep learning approach which is related with higher GPA. Path analyses demonstrated that deep learning approach fully mediated the relationship between students’ motivational variables and academic achievement. Self-efficacy, task value, and intrinsic goal orientation as the indirect effects through deep learning approach on academic achievement were strong predictors in the model.

Keywords: Academic achievement; motivation; deep learning approach; structural equation modeling

A corpus Study on Narrative Texts in Turkish Language

İlker Aydın

pp. 200 - 214   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.15


This study aiming to determine the frequency of use of words in the narrative texts in which the best examples of standard language use are displayed ranks 268 stories compiled from the prominent names of Turkish story-writing. Frequency analyses were made on a corpus of approximately 450 thousand words and the frequency of use of words were tried to be listed according to their lexical categories. The words ranking at a certain percentage (about 2%-4%) were scored. It was observed that general words and grammatically functional words had higher frequencies, and the wordswere used with their antonyms. In terms of Turkish, categorization of words according to their positions in the sentence and their affixations, possible categorization of words in more than one lexical category, and variable meanings which homonyms gain in context were found as the most significant problems in frequency analysis and corpus formation.

Keywords: Turkish, corpus, narrative text, vocabulary teaching.

Teaching Materials Developed Using QR Code Technology in Science Classes

Esra Uçak

pp. 215 - 228   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.16


The present study aims to investigate the opinions of prospective science teachers about the use of QR codes in the teaching materials that they prepared in the “Instructional Technologies and Material Development” course.  The study group consists of 38 (32 female, 6 male) 3rd-year prospective science teachers who attended the “Instructional Technologies and Material Development” course in the fall semester of the 2018-2019 academic year, and who chose to use QR codes academic year, and who chose to use QR codes in the teaching materials.  In this case study, the data were collected through semi-structured interviews.  The data were analyzed by the content analysis method. The study revealed the perspectives of prospective science teachers on the use of QR codes in the teaching materials they prepared, in the learning process, its advantages, disadvantages, and effects of QR codes on the materials prepared.

Keywords: QR codes, science education, prospective teachers, Instructional Technologies and Material Development.

The Comparison of Item Parameters Estimated From Parametric and Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models in Case of The Violance of Local Independence Assumption

Ezgi Mor Dirlik

pp. 229 - 240   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.17


Item response theory(IRT) has so many advantages than its precedent Classical Test Theory(CTT) such as non-changing item parameters, ability parameter estimations free from the items. However, in order to get these advantages, some assumptions should be met and they are; unidimensionality, normality and local independence. However, it is not always so easy to be met these assumptions by datasets. Especially when the normality of data is not provided, another approach for IRT can be applied, which is Non-Parametric Item Response Theory (NIRT). NIRT provides more flexible methods to scale datasets and it is used when the assumptions of Parametric Item Response Theory (PIRT) are not met at a satisfactory level. The assumption of local independence, is one of the situations in which NIRT can be used more effectively than PIRT. In this study, by using a real dataset, taken from TIMSS 2011, the effect of local dependence on the item parameters was investigated.  With this goal, a dataset composed of 1,000 students was formed randomly from the TIMSS 2011 eight grade Mathematic test. Firstly, the item parameters were calculated from data set according to the two approaches without any manipulation. After that, two items were arranged as local dependent by changing the response patterns completely the same and the item parameters have been estimated from each sample by using R program, ltm and mokken packages. Two sets of item parameters estimated from data set were compared and the differences of the parameters were analyzed with statistical test.  By this way, the effect of local independence has been analyzed on the item parameters have been decided.

Keywords: Local Independence, Item Parameters, Parametric Item Response Theory, Non-Parametric Item Response Theory

Secondary School Students' Academic Risk-Taking Levels in Turkish Lesson

Behice Varışoğlu & Esra Ekinci Çelikpazu

pp. 241 - 258   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.18


The aim of this study is to find out academic risk-taking levels among secondary school students in Turkish lesson and determine if there is a relationship between their success in that lesson and risk levels. The study was carried out with blended method which combines qualitative and quantitative research patterns. Study data were collected from 450 secondary schoolers with convenience sampling. Data were collected by using the Risk of Academic Risk and Personal Information Form. Study data were analysed with descriptive and relational analysis techniques.As a result, a statistically significant relationship was found between academic risk-taking and achievement levels of students in the context of Turkish lesson. As their success level increases, their level of risk-taking also increases; and as success level decreases, the other decreases, too. It was found out that students' academic risk-taking is at medium level in Turkish lessons. This finding is supported by the rate of those hesitating to take academic risk and the rate of the positive views regarding Turkish lesson. Yet, no significant relationship was found between gender and academic risk-taking levels of students. However, the relationship between risk-taking behaviour and grade level was found to be significant.

Keywords: Academic risk, Turkish lesson, academic success

Turkish Elementary Teachers' Value Perceptions: A Sample of Rize

Nermin Karabacak, Arzu Küçük & Mehmet Küçük

pp. 259 - 279   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.203.19


The purpose of this study is to investigate the values of elementary teachers in terms of gender, marital status, seniority and level of education variables. The study was conducted in accordance with the relational screening model. The sample of the study consists of 400 elementary teachers, 182 male and 218 female teachers working in public schools in Rize City, located in the north-east part of Turkey. The data were collected between March-May 2015. The "Schwartz Values Scale" (PBL) developed by Schwartz and adapted to Turkish by Demirutku was used in the study to reveal the values of elementary teachers. The participants were asked to mark a single option from 6 options ranging from "Much Like Me" to "Never Say It to Me" about the scale information and participants' brief portrayal of how similar they were to themselves. SPSS package program was used for statistical analysis of the data. Independent groups t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analyzes were performed in comparison with the items made in terms of personal characteristics.

Keywords: Elementary teachers, Value perceptions, Schwartz values scale, Turkey