PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Volume 15 Issue 6 (December 2019)

Original articles

The Analysis of Risk Behaviour Tendencies of Teenagers According to the Use of Wattpad and Some Socio-Demographic Variables

Zöhre Kaya, Selim Fırat Kaya, Ayşenur Sağun & Kübra Şen Koç

pp. 1 - 16   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.1


This research aims to explore the risk behaviour tendencies of teenagers in relation to the use of Wattpad and some socio-demographic variables. The research employs correlational research model and was conducted with 572 students (237 female students and 335 male students) studying at science, Anatolia and vocational high school. Risk Behaviours Scale and Demographic form were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics (arithmetic mean, standard deviation), t test for independent samples, one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation were used in the analyzes. Findings show that teenagers have the highest mean scores of nutrition habits and suicide tendency. It has been found that males generally have higher risk behaviors and the rate of risk behaviors increases as age progresses. Lastly, risk behaviors showed a significant difference according to the use of Wattpad application and psychological problems. Therefore, preventive measures and studies should be taken to create awareness about the conscious use technology.

Keywords: Wattpad, Risk Behaviours, Social Media, Teenager, Technological Addiction

Examining the Relationship Between Parental Attitudes and the Study Habits of Gifted Children

Ayşin Kaplan Sayı & Mustafa İçen

pp. 17 - 32   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.2


Gifted children are the group which have a high level of mental potential, and managing the school with this potential generally without studying, therefore having no effective studying habits. Another important factor in developing study habits is parental attitudes. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the parental attitudes and the study habits of gifted children. In this scope, parents’ attitudes were classified into democratic, authoritarian, permissive and overprotective which were put forward by Baumrind (1966; 1971) in his studies, and the study habits were handled as two dimensions as study quality and study responsibility. In the study, the relational screening model one of the quantitative research methods was used. The research was carried out 2016-2017 and its participants consist of 100 gifted children aged between 7-12 and their 100 parents. As the data collection tools, Parental Attitude Scale contains 62 items developed by Demir and Şendil (2008) and 23-items Study Habits Scale developed by Çalıkoğlu (2009) were used. The findings were obtained through independent t-test, mean, Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient and regression analysis. As a result of the study, no difference was found between the study quality which comprises technical issues such as taking notes, repeating, study responsibility and total study habits regarding age and gender. It was found that families generally held democratic and overprotective attitudes, there was a relationship between democratic attitude and study quality and democratic attitude increased the quality of child’s study. For this reason, it is essential to train families on study habits and the impact of the family on this issue.

Keywords: Giftedness, parents, study habits, attitude.

The Effects of Home-based Responsive Teaching Curriculum on Interactional Behaviors of Mothers and Their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Design Study in Turkey

Özlem Toper, İbrahim Halil Diken, Sezgin Vuran & Gerald Mahoney

pp. 33 - 50   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.3


The effectiveness of Responsive Teaching (RT) Early Intervention Program which is one of the relationship-focused interventions (RFI) on five children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their mothers was studied. The study was conducted in “Mixed Research Design” in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Quantitative data of the study were collected through single group pretest-posttest model and qualitative data were collected from field notes, diaries, video analyses and interviews. Findings gathered from pretest and posttest quantitative results revealed that the RT program was effective on interactive behaviors of five children with ASD and their mothers. Qualitative results supported the quantitative findings and revealed that mothers stated they became more sensitive and responsive to their children behaviors by using RT strategies.

Keywords: Relationship-focused interventions, Responsive teaching, Autism spectrum disorder, Mixed design.

A Research on Visual Learning Representations of Primary and Secondary Science Textbooks in Turkey

Tufan Inaltekin & Volkan Goksu

pp. 51 - 65   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.4


The aim of this study is to analyze the types of visual representations in primary and secondary science textbooks in Turkey. The sample of the research constitutes six textbooks prepared by private publishers for primary and secondary science courses (3rd-8th Grade) in Turkey in 2018-2019 academic year. Document analysis design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, is used in this study. The data are analyzed with descriptive analysis method by using the Moline (1995) “Visual Representation Classification Model”. The results of the study show that simple diagrams are used more frequently than other types of visual representations in all class levels and units in science textbooks. It is understood that synthetic diagrams are more preferable in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades’ science textbooks than in other grade levels, whereas analytical diagrams are more preferable in the sixth grade’s science textbooks than the other grade levels. Visuals such as graphics and maps are determined to be little used in all class levels and units, on the other hand table visuals are frequently used in all class levels. In addition, it is determined that the timeline as the visual representation is used in a few units only in the 7th grade’s book. The results of this study show that visual learning representations in primary and secondary school textbooks need to be rearranged in terms of diversity and distribution in class level and units.

Keywords: Visual learning representations, Science textbooks, Document analysis

An Effective Method to Develop Watching/Listening Comprehension Skills In Turkish Teaching

Dilek Ünveren Kapanadze

pp. 66 - 82   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.5


Traditional and frequently used approaches to develop listening skills and listening teaching mostly word and sentence-centered instead of a holistic approach to the meaning of a discourse; disregarding the fact that words and sentences gain meaning in a discourse, i.e in a context. Therefore, listening should be regarded as an active process, however traditional listening approaches regard listening asa passive / and static process. Thus, in this research, a new approach to listening teaching, a discourse-oriented approach was studied, introduced and offered to eliminate these defiencies. The research was designed as one-group pre-test post-test experimental study to determine the effect of discourse analysis on the given sample of 17 students in 5th grade. As data collection instruments, an identification form, achievement tests, evaluation forms and a questionairre were developed and used in the process. Correlation analysis, t-test and regression analysis were employed to analyse the data. As a result of the study, it was found that listening skills of the students were improved in the process through discourse analysis method by comprehending the material listened/watched thoroughly. The improvement was reflected in the comparison of their pre and post test results and showed in tables. Moreover, their gradual progress was evaluated through the criteria developed and demonstrated in graphs. Additionally, students developed positive opinions about using a discourse-oriented approach to improve listening skills which was reflected on their responses for the questionnaire items.

Keywords: Turkish teaching, listening/watching skills, discourse analysis method

The Effect of Gender on Mobbing Experienced by Teachers at School: A Meta-Analysis Study

Tufan Aytaç

pp. 83 - 101   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.6


The aim of this research is to detect the effect of teachers’ genders on mobbing they experienced at schools. As one of the methods used to synthesize research results, meta-analysis method was used in this study. It was determined that there are 72 studies which are deemed appropriate for the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis study. In this meta-analysis study, 72 studies which form a sample consisting of 24954 people were calculated. As a result of the process of combining in random effects model, a statistically significant ES which was at the level of -0.02 was found in favour of male teachers. When results are evaluated together, it is observed that there is a difference, which may not be considered significant, between male and female teachers in terms of teachers’ perceptions about AM at school. As a result of the conducted moderator analysis, moderator effects of publishing type (p=0,03), of education level (p=0,03), and of gender of the researcher (p=0,02) were determined. It was observed that while mobbing perception of male teachers are higher in studies carried out in master’s and doctoral theses, mobbing perception of female teachers are higher in studies carried out in articles. Moderator effects of school type (public, private, and public/private) (p=0,63) and of the region where the research was carried out (p=0,17) could not be determined. It was observed that mobbing perception of female teachers who work in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia are higher compared to other regions.

Keywords: Mobbing, Teacher, Gender, Meta-analysis

Factors Affecting Teacher Candidates’ Value Preferences

Aylin Mentiş Köksoy & İskender Daşdemir

pp. 102 - 121   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.7


Since the beginning, humankind accumulated knowledge and experiences by passing them to new generations. This accumulation within societies emerged as these societies’ values. We acquire these values from our societies and we hold them up as examples in our lives. To ensure the country’s future, educational institutions and teachers have to teach these values.

The study purpose is to determine whether teacher candidates’ value preferences differ or not. Relational survey model was employed in the study. The sex of the candidates, education level of the parents, income level of the family, where they live and the program they are in make up the independent variables. Human value dimensions (power, achievement, hedonism, self-direction, stimulation, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity and security) of the candidates make up the dependent variables of the study. The study universe consists of seniors attending Omer Halisdemir University’s Faculty of Education during the 2016-2017 academic year. Selected by random sampling method among this universe, 380 senior teacher candidates make up the study group.

            The study results put forth that values education has effect on female candidates’ universalism, benevolence and security value tendencies, and their value tendencies are high. Also, the higher the mother’s education level, the higher the candidates’ universalism, hedonism, benevolence and security value tendencies. Yet, father’s education level does not have any effect on candidates’ value tendencies. The study, also, reveals that teacher candidates’ family income and where they live have no effect on value tendencies. Furthermore, the programs the candidates are in have effect on their universalism, hedonism, benevolence and security value tendencies.

Keywords: Teacher Candidates, Values Education, Schwartz Value Survey

"Teaching is like taking a trip": Two Cases of Pre-service Teachers' Early Construction of Professional Identity with Disparate Outcomes

Naime Elcan Kaynak

pp. 122 - 133   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.8


The purpose of this study was to explore two sophomore pre-service teachers’ processes of professional orientation in the same teacher education program in the US with emphasis on their identity construction. The pre-services teachers were asked to reflect on their “identity” and articulate “who they are” as becoming teachers in semi-structured interviews and narrative writing about their metaphors for teaching. Using a narrative inquiry approach, their identity construction process was first examined in light of their life experiences prior to entering the teacher education program, including childhood experiences, early teacher role models, previous teaching experiences, and important people or experiences that affected their choice of a teaching career. Initial findings reveal that the same pre-service teacher education program had a different impact on each student teacher. Their previous life experiences, their early beliefs about teaching, their initial motivations, and their experiences in their teacher education program all influenced their adaptation to the teaching profession.

Keywords: teacher identity, pre-service teachers, elementary, teacher preparation

The Effect of Common Knowledge Construction Model Based Science Education on Entrepreneurship Skills of Secondary School Students

İlke Yıldırım & Hasan Bakırcı

pp. 134 - 150   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.9


This research aims to investigate the impact of Common Knowledge Construction Model (CKCM) based science education teaching on the entrepreneurship skills of the eight grade students. The participants of this research are 50 students; 25 in control group (10 girls and 15 boys) and 25 in experimental group (9 girls and 16 boys). Mixed methods were employed in the research. Entrepreneurship Scale and Semi-structured entrepreneurship interview forms were used. While the data of the Entrepreneurship Scale were analysed using dependent and independent t-test, the semi-structured Interview were analysed by content and descriptive analysis. The findings showed that current teaching process applied in CKCM-based science teaching and control group (5Es learning model) was effective on entrepreneurial skills of secondary school students. When the experimental and control groups were compared, it was found out that in the experimental group, science teaching based on CKCM was more effective on the entrepreneurial skills of students as opposed to the 5Es learning model-based science teaching used with the control group students. The effect of CKCM on entrepreneurship skills could be more clearly identified if more research is taken with different levels of teaching.

Keywords: Science Teaching, Common Knowledge Construction Model, Entrepreneurship, Eighth Grade Students.

Do 21st Century Teachers Know about Heutagogy or Do They Still Adhere to Traditional Pedagogy and Andragogy?

Seçil Tümen Akyıldız

pp. 151 - 169   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijpe.2019.215.10


There are revolutionary changes in the field of education to keep up with the benefits of globalization (Hase & Kenyon, 2014). The necessity of taking the learner to the center within the framework of  Roger’s (1951) humanistic psychology is also supported by educationalists (Hase & Kenyon, 2014; King, 1993; Novak & Gowin, 1984).  If this educational change is applicable to all grades and disciplines then permanent solutions can be reached.  Examining the researches , it is observed that heutagogy is a useful strategy to make the learners self-determined ones in their learning process especially in higher education. This paper presents the participants perceptions on heutagogical implementation and its practicality. It will contribute to the field for a number of reasons. Firstly the perceptions of the teacher administrators on this issue have not been studied before. Secondly, their views are of great importance, since high schools are the last steps before higher education. So the attitudes and views of teachers on this grade are important for students’ readiness for the next step. Lastly it has some contributions for the heutaogy model in educational settings.

Keywords: Heutagogy, Self-determined Learning, Double-loop Learning, Student-centered Teaching