PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1554-5210

Original article | International Journal of Progressive Education 2020, Vol. 16(2) 56-71

A Metaphoric Approach to the Conception of the "Teacher-Headmaster-School" in Different Age Categories

Akif Sözer & Burcu Sel

pp. 56 - 71   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.5   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1907-05-0001.R1

Published online: April 02, 2020  |   Number of Views: 57  |  Number of Download: 164


Abstract

The aim of this study is to analyze the perceptions of the individuals of different ages about the concepts of teacher-manager-school by means of metaphors. Phenomenology method, one of qualitative research form, and convenience sampling have been used in this study. The study group consisted of 210 participants with different age levels. Research data has been obtained via metaphor identification form. Data has been analyzed by content analysis technique and according to research results, 542 valid metaphors have been determined. Five categories have been determined as to “teacher conception”, which are loadstar and future enlightening person, source of information, compassionate and sacred being, supervisor-disciplined and authoritative being and creator of future respcetively. Another five categories for “headmasters” which are focus of management, authoritative and supervisor being, leader and loadstar being, financier of education, a being that have negative features. As to “school conception”, six categories have been defined: love and solidarity environment, growth and maturation environment, supervising and discipline environment, guidance environment and finance environment. The conceptual categories created as a result of this categorization process have been analyzed by Pearson's chi-square analysis by taking the age of the participants into consideration. As a result of the analysis, no significant difference has been found between age groups of participants as to teachers, principals and school concepts. Although a number of radical changes in the role of important components such as school-headmaster-teacher within the scope of modern education system are targeted, the traditional perceptions of these concepts continue.

Keywords: Metaphor, Headmaster, School, Teacher


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Sozer, A. & Sel, B. (2020). A Metaphoric Approach to the Conception of the "Teacher-Headmaster-School" in Different Age Categories . International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(2), 56-71. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.5

Harvard
Sozer, A. and Sel, B. (2020). A Metaphoric Approach to the Conception of the "Teacher-Headmaster-School" in Different Age Categories . International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(2), pp. 56-71.

Chicago 16th edition
Sozer, Akif and Burcu Sel (2020). "A Metaphoric Approach to the Conception of the "Teacher-Headmaster-School" in Different Age Categories ". International Journal of Progressive Education 16 (2):56-71. doi:10.29329/ijpe.2020.241.5.

References
  1. Akan, D., Yalçın, S. & Yıldırım, İ., (2014). Teachers' methaphoric impressions related to 'school manager'. Elementary Education Online, 13(1), 169-179. [Google Scholar]
  2. Akgün, E. (2016). Prospective pre-school teachers’ metaphors about the concept of “chıld” and “Pre-school teacher”. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Education, (4), 1652-1672.  [Google Scholar]
  3. Akşit, İ. (2016). An action research intended to solve and detect the encountered issues that are used during the process of studying of some concepts on the 7th grade social studies corse in the unit 'voyage in the history of Turkish Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Uşak University, Uşak. [Google Scholar]
  4. Arıkan, R. (2011). Araştırma yöntem ve teknikleri. Ankara: Nobel. [Google Scholar]
  5. Berk, N.A., Gültekin F., & Çençen N. (2015). The Metaphors of social studies candidate about social studies course and social studies teachers’. KEFAD, 16(1),183-199. [Google Scholar]
  6. Berliner, D. (1990). If the metaphor fits why not wear it? The teacher as executive. Theory into Practice,  29(2), 85 - 93. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bilgin, N. (2000). İçerik analizi. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bozlk, M. (2002). The college student as learner: Insight gained through metaphor analysis. College Student Journal, 36, 142-151. [Google Scholar]
  9. Browne-Ferrigno, T. (2003). Becoming a principal: Role conception, initial socialization, roleidentity transformation, purposeful engagement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(4), 468-503. [Google Scholar]
  10. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2017). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cerit, Y. (2008). Students, teachers and administrators’ views on metaphors with respect to the concept of teacher. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 6(4).693-712. [Google Scholar]
  12. Çepni, O. (2013). Examining students' perceptions on geography concepts in social science teaching program. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis. Gazi University, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  13. Çobanoğlu, N., & Gökalp, S. (2015). Metephoric perceptions of teacher candidates for school managers. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 12(31), 279-295. [Google Scholar]
  14. De Guerrero, M. C., & Villamil, O. S. (2002). Metaphorical conceptualizations of ESL teaching and learning. Language Teaching Research, 6(2), 95-120. [Google Scholar]
  15. Demir, C. E. (2007). Metaphors as a reflection of middle school students' perceptions of school: A cross-cultural analysis. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13(2), 89-107. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ekiz, D., & Koçyiğit, Z. (2011). Exploring primary school teahchers’ metaphors concerning “teacher”. Kastamonu Education Journal, 21(2), 439-458. [Google Scholar]
  17. Fraser, D.C. (2000). Sin, “hope and optimism in childrens methaphors”, AARE Conference, Sydney, Australia. [Google Scholar]
  18. Grady, N. B., Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (1995). Relationships between teachers’ images of school and students’ perceptions of classroom environment. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED385526.pdf [Google Scholar]
  19. Gömleksiz, M.N., Kan, A. Ü. & Öner, Ü. (2012). Metaphorical perceptions of elementary school students toward social studies course. Erzincan University Journal of Education 14(2), 419-436. [Google Scholar]
  20. Güven, S., & Akhan, N. E. (2010). The Research on the metaphors that elementary students in sixth and seventh grades use to explain the elements related to social scienses courses. Turkish Journal of Social Research, 1, 136-172. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hardcastle, B., Yamamoto, K., Parkay, F. W., & Chan, J. (1985). Metaphorical views of school: A cross-cultural comparison of college students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 1(4), 309-315. [Google Scholar]
  22. Harman, G., & Çökelez, A. (2017). Pre-service early childhood education teachers’ metaphorical perceptions towards chemistry, physics and biology. Journal of Educational Sciences, 46(46), 75-95. [Google Scholar]
  23. Harris, H. (2001).Content analysis of secondary data: A study of courage in managerial decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 34, 191-208. [Google Scholar]
  24. Inbar, D. E. (1996). The free educational prison: Metaphors and images. Educational research, 38(1), 77-92. [Google Scholar]
  25. Johnson, M. (1987). The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Google Scholar]
  26. Kaya, M. F. (2013). Metaphor perceptions of social studies teacher candidates towards the concept of “Global warming”. Atatürk University Eastern Geographhical Review, 18(29), 117-134. [Google Scholar]
  27. Keçe, M. (2014). Perception analysis of history and social studies teacher candidates relation with some history concepts through metaphors. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 29(4), 143-156. [Google Scholar]
  28. Kılıç, F.D. (2010). Examination of metaphors formed by fifth grade primary school students over history subjects by using discourse analysis technique. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale. [Google Scholar]
  29. Kuyucu, Y., Şahin, M., & Kapıcıoğlu, O. (2013). Metaphors of preschool teachers on “child”. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 2(2), 43-53. [Google Scholar]
  30. Levine, P. M. (2005). Metaphors and images of classrooms, Kappa delta Pi Record, 41(4),172-175. [Google Scholar]
  31. Mahlios, M., & Maxson, M. (1998). Metaphors as structures for elementary and secondary preservice teachers’ thinking. International Journal of Educational Research, 29(3), 227-240. [Google Scholar]
  32. Mahlios, M., Massengill‐Shaw, D., & Barry, A. (2010). Making sense of teaching through metaphors: a review across three studies. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 16(1), 49-71. [Google Scholar]
  33. Martinez, M., Sauleda, N., & Huber, G. (2001). Metaphors as blueprints of thinking about teaching and learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 965–977. [Google Scholar]
  34. Meral, E.,  Küçük, B. & Gedik, F.(2015). Metaphoric comprehension of training teachers of social studies as regards the concept of environment. Kastamonu Education Journal, 24(1), 65-78. [Google Scholar]
  35. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. B. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, C.A:Sage Publications. [Google Scholar]
  36. Miller, S. (2003). Analysis of phenomenological data generated with children as research participants. Nurse Researcher, 10(4), 68-82. [Google Scholar]
  37. Mouraz, A., Pereira, A., & Monteiro, R. (2013). The use of metaphors in the processes of teaching and learning in higher education. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 5(1), 99-110. [Google Scholar]
  38. Nalçacı, A., & Bektaş, F. (2012). Teacher candidates’ perceptions regarding the concept of school. KEFAD, 13(1), 239-258. [Google Scholar]
  39. Nikitina, L., & Furuoka, F. (2008). Measuring metaphors: A factor analysis of students’ conceptions of language teachers. Metaphor. de, 15(161-180), 110. Retrieved from https://www.metaphorik.de/sites/www.metaphorik.de/files/journal-pdf/15_2008_nikitina-furuoka.pdf [Google Scholar]
  40. Ocak, G. & Gündüz, M. (2006). The comparison of pre-service teachers’ metaphors about the teacher-profession before and after the ‘introduction to teacher-profession’ course Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 8(2), 293- 310.  [Google Scholar]
  41. Özer, S., & Türel, Y. K. (2015). ICT teacher candidates’ metaphoric perceptions of e-book and interactive e-book. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 6(2), 1-23. [Google Scholar]
  42. Öztürk, Ç. (2007). Metaphor status about the concept of ‘geography’of prospective social science, science and classroom teachers. KEFAD, 8(2), 55-69. [Google Scholar]
  43. Perry, C. & Cooper, M. (2001). Metaphors are good mirrors : Reflecting on change for teacher educators. Reflective Practice, 2(1), 41-52. [Google Scholar]
  44. Pesen A, Kara İ & Gedik M. (2015). 2nd grade department of child development students' metaphor perceptions in relation to the concept of "principal". Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 5, 28-48 [Google Scholar]
  45. Saban, A. (2008). Metaphors about school. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice. 55(55), 459-496. [Google Scholar]
  46. Saban, A. (2009). Prospective teachers’ mental images about the concept of student. The Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 7(2), 281-326. [Google Scholar]
  47. Semerci, Ç. (2007). A view to the new primary school curricula with the metaphors relating to "curriculum development". Journal of Social Sciences, 31(2), 125-140. [Google Scholar]
  48. Sezgin, F., Koşar, D., Koşar, S., & Er, E. (2017). A qualitative research on determining teachers’ metaphors about students. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 32(3), 600-611. [Google Scholar]
  49. Sözer, M. A., & Özkan, R. (2014). Identifying the perceptions of teacher candidates towards womanhood. Usak University Journal Of Social Sciences, 7(1), 264-278. [Google Scholar]
  50. Stacey, J. (1997). Teratologies: A cultural study of cancer. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  51. Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose your method: A comparison of phenomenology, discourse analysis, and grounded theory. Qualitative health research, 17(10), 1372-1380. [Google Scholar]
  52. Stichert, E. G. (2005). Preservice science teachers perception of profession with metaphorical images and reasons of choosing teaching as a profession. Retrieved from https://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12606442/index.pdf  [Google Scholar]
  53. Topuz, S. K., & Erkanli, H. (2016). Metaphor analysis of meanings attributed to women and men in the context gender. Alternatif Politika, 8(2), 300-321. [Google Scholar]
  54. Tünkler, V. (2013). Metaphorical approach to teaching of abstract concepts, skills and values in citizenship and democracy education. Unpublished M.A. Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya. [Google Scholar]
  55. Vadeboncoeur, J. A., & Torres, M. N. (2003). Constructing and reconstructing teaching roles: A focus on generative metaphors and dichotomies. Discourse: Studies in The Cultural Politics of Education, 24(1), 87-103. [Google Scholar]
  56. Yalçın, M., & Erginer, A. (2012). Metaphoric perception of principals in primary schools. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 1(2), 229-256. [Google Scholar]
  57. Yalmancı, S. G., & Aydın, S. (2014). Preservice teachers’ metaphorical perceptions towards to cheat. Erzincan University Journal of Education,16(1),316-332. [Google Scholar]
  58. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin. [Google Scholar]
  59. Yıldırım, K. (2010). Raising the quality in qualitative research. Elementary Education Online, 9(1),79-92. [Google Scholar]
  60. Yılmaz, F., Göçen, S., & Yılmaz, F. (2013). Pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the concept of teacher: A metaphoric study. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 9(1), 151-164.  [Google Scholar]
  61. Zembat, R., Tunçeli, H. İ., & Akşin, E. (2015). Okul öncesi öğretmen adaylarının “okul yöneticisi" kavramına ilişkin algılarına yönelik metafor çalışması. Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal, 2, 446-459. [Google Scholar]