pp. 128-137 | Article Number: ijpe.2016.010
Published Online: June 01, 2016
Article Views: 85 | Article Download: 85
In the field of Modern Higher Education, the background of teachers as native or non-native speakers of the language they teach is of major concern in the field of teacher education. First things first, in teacher education each teacher has an ideal self of her or his own as non-native English-speaking teachers of English, as a second or foreign language, or English as an additional language. Teachers perceive differences between their teaching [styles/approaches] and how this perception influences the teaching behavior and attitudes of the non-native speaking teachers matters a lot. The question is: Should they develop and enhance rather than merely maintain in a static self their proficiency level? This question is also related with the self of the foreign language teacher. A foreign language teacher should never say this: “As a non-native teacher, I can never truly master the target language.” Conversely, a non-native foreign language teacher should not articulate the following statement, which is contrary to professional self: “I have near-native proficiency, but I can’t aspire to mastery of the language.”All of this boils down to mean that the teacher has weak professional self which indicates the immatured self-fulfillment in efficiency in the target language.
Keywords: Determinant, Ideal Self, Ought-To Self, Feared Teacher Self, Professional Self
Árva, V. and Medgyes, P. (2000): “Natives and non-natives teachers in the classroom”. System, 28 (3), pp. 355-372.
Boldero, J., Moretti, M., Bell, R., & Francis, J. (2005). Self-discrepancies and negative affect: A primer on when to look for specificity, and how to find it. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57(3), 139-147
Cook, V. J. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 33 (2),185-209.
Cook, V. J. (2003). Effects of the second language on the first. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Coppieters, R. (1987). “Competence difference between native and near-native speakers”, in Language, 63, 544-73
Demirezen, M. (2008a) “Identity Problems of Non-native Teachers of English in Teacher Education,” The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XIII, No. 8, August,
Dörnyei, Z. (2005).The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Machwach, N. J.: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
Higgins, E. T. (1989). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect, Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.
Dweck, D. C. & Molden, C. S. (2006). American Psychologist. Vol. 61, No. 3, 192–203.
Hardin, E. & Lakin, J.(2009). The integrated self-discrepancy index: A reliable and valid measure of self-discrepancies. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(3), 245-253.
Foley, J. A. (2007). English as a global language: My two satangs’ worth. RELC Journal, 38(1), 7-17.
Higgins, E. T., Roney, C., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance: Distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 276-286.
Higgins, E. T.(2012). Beyond pleasure and pain: How motivation works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Horwitz, E. K. (1996): “Even Teachers Get the Blues: Recognizing and Alleviating Language
Teachers’ Feelings of Foreign Language Anxiety”, in Foreign Language Annals 29 (3), 364-372.
Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a lingua franca: attitude and identity. Oxford: OUP.
Kachru, B. B.(1982).The other tongue: English across cultures. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru, B. B and Nelson, L. C. (1996). "World Englishes." Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Eds. McKay L. Sandra and Hornberger H. Nancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 71-102.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2006). Which model of English: Native-speaker, nativized or lingua franca? In R. Rubdy & M. Saraceni (Eds.), English in the world – Global rules, global roles London: Continuum, 71-83.
Kohler, M. (2015). Teachers as mediators in the foreign language classroom. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Leung, C., Harris, R., & Rampton, B. (1997). The idealized native speaker, reified ethnicities, and classroom realities [Electronic version]. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 543- 560.
Llurda, E. (2004). Non-native-speaker teachers and English as an international language. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(3), 314-323.
Markus, H. & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.
Matsuda, A. & Matsuda, P. K. (2001). Autonomy and collaboration in teacher education: Journal sharing among native and nonnative English-speaking teachers”. CATESOL Journal, 13, 1: 109-121.
Maum, R. (2002). “Nonnative-English-speaking teachers in the English teaching profession”, in ERIC Digest. [On-line]. Available at: http://www.cal.org/ericcll/digest/0209maum.html.
Medgyes, P. (1983).The schizophrenic teacher, ELT Journal Volume 37/1 January 1983, 1-6.
Medgyes, P. (1992). “Native or non-native: Who’s worth more?”, in ELT Journal, 46, 4: 340-349.
Medgyes, P. (1994): The Non-Native Teacher. London: MacMillan Publishers.
Medgyes, P. (2001). When the teacher is a non-native speaker. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.). London: Heinle & Heinle, 429-442.
Merino, I. V. (1997). Native English-Speaking Teachers versus Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses 10 (1997), 69-79.
Modiano, M. (1999). International English in the global village. English Today, 15(2), 22-27.
Paikeday, T. (1985). The Native Speaker is Dead!. Ontario: Paikeday Publishing, Inc.
Pakir, A. (1999). Connecting English in the context of internationalization [Electronic version]. TESOL Quarterly, 33(1), 103-114.
Phillips, A. (2005). Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(5), 703-713.
Piller, I. (2002). Passing for a native speaker: Identity and success in second language learning. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 6, (2), 179-206.
Phillipson, R. (1996). ELT: The native speaker’s burden. In T. Hedge & N. Whitney (Eds.), Power, pedagogy & practice.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 23-30.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a person: A psychotherapists view of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Reves, T. and Medgyes, P. (1994): “The Non-Native English Speaking EFL/ESL Teacher’s Self-Image: An International Survey”, SYSTEM 22 (3), pp. 353-367.
Rowe, K. & Sikes, J. (1989). The impact of professional development on teachers’ self perceptions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 5, 129–141.
Samimy, R. & Brutt-Griffler, J. (1999). To be a native or nonnative speaker: Perceptions of “nonnative” students in a graduate TESOL program. In G. Braine (Ed.), Nonnative educators in English language teaching, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 127-144).
Selinker, L. "Interlanguage." IRAL 10 (1972), 219-31.
Sommers, S. (2004). Why native speaker teacher programs don’t work? Retrieved from http://scottsommers.blogs.com/taiwanweblog/2004/10/index.html
Stronge, J. H. & Ostrander, L. P. (1997). Client surveys in teacher evaluation. In J. H. Stronge (Ed.), Evaluating teaching: A guide to current thinking and best practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 129-161.
Stevens, K.N. (2000). Acoustic phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press TESOL 2006. Position statement against discrimination of non-native teachers of teaching English (http://www.tesol.org/docs/pdf/5889.pdf?sfvrsn=2, retrieved in 02 September, 2015)
Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers – A reflective approach (2nd ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Widdowson, H. George. "ELT and EL Teachers: Matters Arising." ELT Journal 46.4 (1992): 333-39. http://www.tesol.org/docs/pdf/5889.pdf?sfvrsn=2, retrieved in 02 September, 2015).